Small bowel (small intestine)
Benign tumors and tumor-like conditions
Reviewer: Hanni Gulwani, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 22 December 2012, last major update August 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Kayexelate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate) in sorbitol is used to treat hyperkalemia, but may crystallize in small intestine (also elsewhere in GI tract) and produce endoscopic findings resembling ulcer or erosion (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:637)
● Also causes intestinal necrosis (South Med J 2009;102:493, Hum Pathol 2007;38:527)
● 87 year old man (Case Rep Gastroenterol 2007;1:144)
● Crystals are lightly basophilic with a faint crystalline mosaic pattern, better seen with PAS/Alcian blue
● Crystals are refractile but not polarizable, luminal and adherent to intact surface epithelium or mixed with inflammatory exudates in patients with ulcer or erosion
Figure a-Kayexalate crystals are variable sizes, all showing a mosaic “cracking” pattern; patient had severe cardiovascular compromise and received kayexalate for hypokalemia; bowel was necrotic and ischemic
Figure b-Cholestyramine crystals resemble kayexalate, but are red; larger cyrstals show some mosaic “cracking,” but smaller cholestyramine crystals do not
End of Small bowel (small intestine) > Benign tumors and tumor-like conditions > Kayexelate damage
This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patient's clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician.
All information on this website is protected by copyright of PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. Information from third parties may also be protected by copyright. Please contact us at copyrightPathOut@gmail.com with any questions (click here for other contact information).