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Stains

HGAL


Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 21 November 2011, last major update November 2011
Copyright: (c) 2002-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Human germinal center-associated lymphoma; also called germinal center B-cell expressed transcript 2
● NOT human-galectin

Pathophysiology
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● Inhibits lymphocyte and lymphoma cell motility by activating the RhoA signaling cascade (Blood 2010;116:5217); also interacts with actin and myosin proteins and reduces the maximum velocity of myosin head / actin movement (FEBS J 2011;278:1922)

Uses by Pathologists
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● (1) More sensitive for follicular lymphoma than bcl6 and CD10 (Diagn Pathol 2011;6:97), and particularly helpful in detecting its interfollicular and diffuse components (Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34:1266)
● (2) Favorable marker in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (Blood 2003;101:433) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (Leuk Lymphoma 2009;50:1830, Blood 2007;109:298)
● (3) Help classify cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (Mod Pathol 2008;21:653)

Micro images
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Normal tonsil

           
Follicular neoplasms


Nodal marginal zone lymphoma versus follicular lymphoma

   
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma versus primary cutaneous follicular center cell lymphoma

   
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma

Positive stains - normal
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● Germinal center lymphocytes

Positive stains - tumors
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● Germinal center derived lymphomas, including follicular center cell lymphoma

End of Stains > HGAL


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