Stains
Adenovirus

Editorial Board Member: Raul S. Gonzalez, M.D.
Editor-in-Chief: Debra Zynger, M.D.
Vikas Mehta M.D.
Maria M Picken, M.D., Ph.D.

Topic Completed: 20 September 2019

Revised: 2 October 2019

Copyright: 2019, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search:Adenovirus [title] stains


Vikas Mehta M.D.
Maria M Picken, M.D., Ph.D.
Page views in 2019 to date: 186
Cite this page: Mehta V, Picken MM. Adenovirus. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainsadenovirus.html. Accessed November 13th, 2019.
Definition / general
  • Anti-adenovirus is a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies derived from cell culture supernatant
Essential features
  • Anti-adenovirus is a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies with nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern
  • False positives are extremely uncommon
  • Most false negatives (cases with positive viral cytopathic effect and negative IHC) result from exhaustion of the diagnostic tissue
Pathophysiology
  • Double stranded DNA viruses with linear genome capped by proteins at both 5' ends with nonenveloped capsule
  • Adenovirus produces nuclear inclusions without cytomegaly
  • Virus binds to coxsackie adenovirus receptor or major histocompatibility class I molecule followed by viral internalization
  • Viral replication cycle takes about 32 - 36 hours and up to 10,000 virions can be produced; new virions remain in cell until it degenerates and lyses (Tille: Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 13th Edition, 2013)
Clinical features
  • Adenoviruses are spread via aerosols, in fecal matter or through close contact
  • Adenovirus infection is especially common in military barracks and college dormitories
  • Children under 14 and immunocompromised patients including transplant recipients are especially vulnerable
Interpretation
  • Nuclear and cytoplasmic
  • False positives are extremely uncommon
  • Most false negatives (cases with positive viral cytopathic effect and negative IHC) result from exhaustion of the diagnostic tissue (Am J Clin Pathol 2017;147:96)
  • Other limitations of this and other IHC tests are fixation time of tissues, dilution factor of antibody, retrieval method utilized and incubation time; optimal performance should be established through positive and negative controls
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Vikas Mehta M.D. and Maria M Picken, M.D., Ph.D.

Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression


Positive staining - disease
Electron microscopy images

Contributed by Maria M Picken, M.D., Ph.D.

Crystalline array

Molecular / cytogenetics description
  • Gene amplification or DNA in situ hybridization can be used for identification
Board review question #1
The immunohistochemical staining pattern of adenovirus in adenovirus nephritis is



  1. Cytoplasmic
  2. Dot-like
  3. Nuclear
  4. Nuclear and cytoplasmic
Board review answer #1
D. Nuclear and cytoplasmic

Reference: Stains - adenovirus

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