Author: Nat Pernick,, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 27 August 2015, last major update August 2013

Copyright: (c) 2003-2015,, Inc.

PubMed Search: AGR2
  • Anterior gradient protein 2
  • Member of protein disulfide isomerase family; homolog of African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) gene XAG2
  • Secreted peptide known to promote cell metastasis (Exp Cell Res 2012;318:1788, Exp Mol Med 2011;43:91)
  • Localizes in endoplasmic reticulum of normal intestinal epithelial cells and is essential for in vivo production of mucus; mediates processing of MUC2 through formation of mixed disulfide bonds (Cancer Res 2011;71:7091)
Clinical Features
Micro Images

Esophagus: adenocarcinoma

Ovary: mucinous carcinoma

Pancreas: normal and malignant

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Bone and soft tissue metastases

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Breast: normal and carcinoma

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Prostate: normal and malignant