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Stains

Brachyury


Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 14 January 2012, last major update January 2012
Copyright: (c) 2002-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Transcription factor essential for notochordal cell differentiation, elongation of axis and specification of posterior mesodermal elements (Mod Pathol 2009;22:996)

Pathophysiology
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● Brachyury (T) is founding member of T box (Tbx) family
● Transcriptional activator expressed throughout the nascent mesoderm, tailbud and notochord
● Involved in the induction and regional specification of mesoderm
● Brachyury deficient embryos lack tail and trunk structures and die shortly after gastrulation (PLoS One 2011;6:e28394)
● In tumor cells, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an important step in progression toward metastasis (J Clin Invest 2010;120:533)

Interpretation
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● Nuclear staining

Uses by pathologists
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● Distinguish chordoma from histologic mimics, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, chordoid meningioma (Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:669, Mod Pathol 2011;24:425)

Micro images
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Chordoma and variants

Positive staining - normal
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● Spermatogonia

Positive staining - disease
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● Benign notochordal cell tumor of extraosseous origin (Am J Surg Pathol 2011;35:1158), chordoma (90%+ sensitive, Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:669, Arch Pathol Lab Med 2010;134:1181), hemangioblastoma (Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32:572)

Negative staining
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● Carcinomas, lymphomas, sarcomas
● Invasive urothelial carcinoma with chordoid features (Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:1213)

End of Stains > Brachyury


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