Author: Nat Pernick, M.D.

Revised: 30 March 2018, last major update January 2012

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018,, Inc.

PubMed Search: BRAF[title]
Cite this page: Pernick, N. BRAF. website. Accessed October 22nd, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Serine / threonine specific protein kinase, part of the RAS / MAPK pathway regulating the growth, maturation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells
  • Abbreviation for v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
  • Gene commonly mutated in papillary thyroid carcinoma and melanoma
  • V600E mutation (valine at residue 600 replaced by glutamic acid) renders BRAF constitutively active and increases its kinase activity (Nature 2002;417:949)
Diagrams / tables
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MAPK signaling pathway

Clinical features
  • The drug Vemurafenib / Zelboraf®, used to treat melanoma, interrupts the BRAF / MEK / ERK pathway, only when BRAF has the V600E mutation (valine replaced by glutamic acid)
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images
Images hosted on PathOut server:

Courtesy of Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D.

V600E mutant protein is diffusely expresed in tumor / cancer, but not normal tissue

Diffuse cytoplasmic staining

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Prevalence of BRAF mutations
in different histologic variants
of thyroid papillary carcinoma

Negative stains
Molecular / cytogenetics description
Molecular / cytogenetics images
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BRAF melting curves