Stains
CDX2

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 23 November 2015, last major update December 2011

Copyright: (c) 2003-2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CDX2[title]
Cite this page: CDX2. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainscdx2.html. Accessed December 5th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Homeobox gene that encodes a nuclear transcription factor critical for intestinal embryonic development; relatively specific for intestinal epithelium (but see positive staining below)
Terminology
  • Also called caudal-related homeobox gene 2, caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2
  • Homologue of Drosophila melanogaster homeobox gene-caudal
Uses by Pathologists
Micro Images

Images hosted on other servers:

Anal gland carcinoma is CDX2- with positive internal control of normal colonic glands (fig E)


Left-bladder adenocarcinoma is CDX2+ (fig C)


Left: primary colorectal carcinomas; middle: secondary colonic tumors; right: metastasis to brain (fig 2B)


Colonic medullary carcinoma is usually CDX2- (fig C), but colonic poorly differentiated carcinoma is usually CDX2+ (fig D)


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Stomach: poorly differentiated carcinoma (fig 4E)


Various (left to right): well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of pancreas, endometrial adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma


Quality control of CDX2 staining


Carcinoid tumors: primary and metastatic




Images hosted on Nature.com:
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Secondary colorectal carcinoma to bladder is CDX2+ vs. primary bladder tumor is weak / negative


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Left: tissue microarrays of colonic adenoma, colorectal adenocarcinomas, ovarina carcinoma; right: carcinomas of colon, duodenum and ampulla


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Esophagus with Barrett esophagus: left-foveolar type dysplasia, right-adenomatous type dysplasia


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Esophagus with columnar lined epithelium with and without Barrett metaplasia


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Ovarian tumors (left to right): primary ovarian mucinous tumor, metastatic colorectal carcinoma, metastatic pancreatic carcinoma


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Ovarian tumors (left to right): primary mucinous ovarian adenocarcinoma, primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous metaplasia, metastatic colorectal carcinoma


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Stomach: epithelial dysplasia-left (fig E, E1) versus carcinoma-right


Positive Staining - Normal
  • Nuclei of intestinal epithelium lining colonic villi and crypts, subset of epithelium of pancreas, stomach, esophagus
  • Urachal remants of glandular type, bladder intestinal metaplasia
Positive Staining - Disease
Negative Staining