Stains & molecular markers

Topic Completed: 1 March 2016

Minor changes: 3 September 2020

Copyright: 2002-2020,, Inc.

PubMed Search: ING3[title]

Related topics: ING1, ING2

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Cite this page: Thakur S, Enwere E. ING3. website. Accessed October 24th, 2020.
Definition / general
  • The ING family (ING1-5) of tumor suppressors are involved in a broad range of cellular processes
  • The tumor suppressive properties of INGs are due to their ability to induce apoptosis, senescence and inhibition of cell migration
  • Due to their ability to interact with histones, all ING proteins are categorized as "histone readers" and can regulate gene expression epigenetically
  • ING3 is the most evolutionarily conserved member of the ING group of proteins, and was first described as a p53 dependent regulator of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in colon cancer cells (Eur J Cell Biol 2015;94:214)
Clinical features
  • ING3 is deregulated in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, hepatic cancer and melanoma
  • Overexpression of ING3 in colon cancer cell lines has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth (Oncogene 2003;22:343)
Uses by pathologists
  • ING3 expression is decreased in advanced and castration resistant prostate cancer as compared to benign tumors and ING3 protein levels are inversely correlated to Gleason score (Tumour Biol 2016;37:9731)
  • ING3 levels are reduced in melanoma compared to dysplastic nevi
  • Reduced nuclear ING3 significantly correlates with poor disease specific survival of patients with primary high risk melanoma (Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:4111)
  • There is no report of ING3 knockout mice, so physiological effects of ING3 are currently unknown
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

ING3 immuno-
staining in human
melanocytic lesions

Positive staining - normal
  • Bone marrow, brain, liver, lung, kidney, ovary, skin epidermis, small intestine, testis
Positive staining - disease
  • Glioma, prostate cancer
Negative staining
  • Adipose tissue, lymph nodes, skeletal muscle and thymus stain negative for ING3
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