Author: Satbir Thakur, Ph.D. and Emeka Enwere, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 13 April 2016, last major update March 2016

Copyright: (c) 2002-2016,, Inc.

PubMed Search: ING3[title]

Related topics: ING1, ING2

Cite this page: ING3. website. Accessed June 18th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • The ING family (ING1-5) of tumor suppressors are involved in a broad range of cellular processes
  • The tumor suppressive properties of INGs are due to their ability to induce apoptosis, senescence and inhibition of cell migration
  • Due to their ability to interact with histones, all ING proteins are categorized as "histone readers" and can regulate gene expression epigenetically
  • ING3 is the most evolutionarily conserved member of the ING group of proteins, and was first described as a p53 dependent regulator of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in colon cancer cells (Eur J Cell Biol 2015;94:214)
Clinical features
  • ING3 is deregulated in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, hepatic cancer and melanoma
  • Overexpression of ING3 in colon cancer cell lines has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibition of tumor growth (Oncogene 2003;22:343)
Uses by pathologists
  • ING3 expression is decreased in advanced and castration resistant prostate cancer as compared to benign tumors and ING3 protein levels are inversely correlated to Gleason score (Tumour Biol 2016 Jan 23 [Epub ahead of print])
  • ING3 levels are reduced in melanoma compared to dysplastic nevi
  • Reduced nuclear ING3 significantly correlates with poor disease specific survival of patients with primary high risk melanoma (Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:4111)
  • There is no report of ING3 knockout mice, so physiological effects of ING3 are currently unknown
Microscopic (histologic) images

ING3 immunohistochemical staining in human melanocytic lesions

Positive staining - normal
  • Bone Marrow, Brain, Liver, Lung, Kidney, Ovary, Skin epidermis, Small intestine, Testis
Positive staining - disease
  • Glioma, Prostate Cancer
Negative staining
  • Adipose tissue, Lymph Nodes, Skeletal muscle and Thymus stain negative for ING3