Metalloproteinases (MMP)

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 10 November 2015, last major update January 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2015,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Metalloproteinases [title]

Definition / General
  • Family of neutral zinc metalloenzymes secreted as latent proenzymes, activated by proteolytic cleavage of NH2 terminal domain
  • Degrade various extracellular matrix proteins and other molecules (Wikipedia)
  • Includes collagenase (degrades collagen types I, II and III), gelatinase (degrades type IV collagen) and stromeolysins
  • Imbalance between metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are associated with tumor degradation of the extracellular matrix
  • Also regulate inflammation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, various renal diseases (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2012;302:F1351)
  • Mediate endometrial matrix remodeling prior to menstruation (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E888)
Micro Images

Images hosted on Other servers:

Missing Image

MMP2 (A), MMP3 (B) and MMP9 (C), colon

Missing Image Missing Image

MMP2 (left) and MMP9 (right) in situ hybridization in colorectal tumor sections

See also
  • General:
    • Matrix metalloproteinase 1
    • Also called collagenase1, interstitial collagenase
    • Cleaves alpha chains of types I, II and III collagen, apparently facilitating tumor invasion through collagenous stroma
    • Expression increased in endothelial cells
  • Positive staining - disease

  • General
    • Also called type IV gelatinase A
    • MMP2 and its inhibitor TIMP2 are secreted independently and complex extracellularly
    • Activated by type IV urokinase plasminogen activator when MMP2 or MMP9 are bound to cell surface; degraded by same when MMPs are in soluble form
    • Impaired balance in local levels of MMPs and TIMPs causes extracellular matrix degradation during tumor invasion
    • MMP2 and MMP9 are upregulated at invasive front of endometrioid endometrial and ovarian endometrioid carcinomas, may degrade basement membrane (Hum Pathol 2011;42:57)
  • Positive staining - disease
    • Bladder carcinoma (71%)

  • General
    • Also called stromeolysin-1

  • General
    • Also called type IV gelatinase B
    • Bladder carcinoma: 71% of tumor cells are immunoreactive

  • General
    • Principal proteinase expressed by stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone, has role in bone resorption (Hum Pathol 2010;41:1320)