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Programmed death-1 (PD-1)

Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 17 May 2012, last major update May 2012
Copyright: (c) 2002-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.


● Also known as CD279
● Co-inhibitory receptor of lymphocytes / other immune system cells; controls lymphocyte activation by providing negative signals in conjunction with signals from lymphocyte antigen receptors (Future Oncol 2011;7:929)
● Expressed by germinal center-associated helper T cells; inhibits T cell activity (Hum Pathol 2009;40:1715)
● Expressed by CD8+ T cells, associated with CD8 activation (AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012;28:465)
● Has two known ligands: PD-L1 (B7H1; CD274) and PD-L2 (B7DC; CD273)
● May limit CNS inflammation and neurologic deficits after stroke (Stroke 2011;42:2578)

Uses by pathologists

● Differentiate primary cutaneous CD4 small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous pseudo-T-cell lymphomas (PD-1 positive) from other cutaneous T cell lymphomas (usually PD-1 negative, Am J Surg Pathol 2012;36:109)
● PD-1+ rosettes of T cells around neoplastic cells is relatively specific for nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (Hum Pathol 2009;40:1715)

Micro images

Normal tonsil

Normal bone marrow and bone marrow with angioimmunoblastic lymphoma

Esophageal carcinoma: PD-L1 and PD-L2

Lymph nodes: progressive transformation of germinal centers with focus of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; both are PD-1 positive

Lymph nodes: viral lymphadenitis and Rosai-Dorfman are PD-1 positive

Lymph nodes: reactive conditions that are PD-1 negative

Lymphoma: angioimmunoblastic

Lymphoma: nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma

Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma: PD-L1 and PD-L2

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma: PD-L1 and PD-L2

Positive staining - normal

● Pro-B cells
● Germinal center-associated helper T cells

Positive staining - disease

● Angioimmunoblastic lymphoma (Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:802)
● CLL/SLL - B cells (Hum Pathol 2008;39:1050)
● Diffuse large B cell lymphoma: T cell and histiocyte rich (33-40%, Hum Pathol 2010;41:1726)
● Hodgkin lymphoma: T cells associated with neoplastic B cells in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with classic nodular architecture (87%), decreasing in diffuse areas; lymphocyte-rich classic (33-40%, Hum Pathol 2010;41:1726)
● Primary cutaneous CD4 small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma; cutaneous pseudo-T-cell lymphoma (Am J Surg Pathol 2012;36:109)
● Progressive transformation of germinal centers, Rosai-Dorfman disease, viral lymphadenitis (EBV and HIV) (Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34:178)

Negative staining

● Cat-scratch disease, Kikuchi lymphadenitis, Castleman disease, reactive follicular hyperplasia are PD-1 negative outside follicles (Am J Surg Pathol 2010;34:178)

End of Stains > Programmed death-1 (PD-1)

Ref Updated: 4/25/12

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