Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 16 December 2015, last major update December 2011

Copyright: (c) 2002-2015,, Inc.

Cite this page: SALL4. website. Accessed May 24th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • First characterized in 2002 (Hum Mol Genet 2002;11:2979); stem cell marker and oncofetal protein similar to alpha-fetoprotein and glycipan3
  • Zinc-finger transcriptional factor important for embryonic development, at 20q13
Clinical features
  • SALL4-related disorders include Duane-radial ray syndrome and acro-renal-ocular syndrome (GeneReviews [Internet])
  • Nuclear staining
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on
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CNS tumors (left to right): germinoma and embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratomas

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Left: Staining of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, AML, B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, but not T cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma
Middle: No staining of normal lymph nodes, tonsil, thymus
Right: No staining of follicular lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, myeloma

Positive staining - normal
  • Fetal stomach at gestational week 9 only; CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells
Positive staining - disease