Testis and epididymis
Testicular tumors

Topic Completed: 1 January 2013

Revised: 24 April 2019

Copyright: 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: testicular neoplasms [title]

Turki Al-Hussain, M.D.
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Page views in 2020 to date: 331
Table of Contents
Definition / general
Cite this page: Al-Hussain T. Testicular tumors - general. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/testistestgeneral.html. Accessed April 3rd, 2020.
Definition / general
  • < 1% of malignancies in males; highly curable even if advanced
  • 95% are germ cell tumors (aggressive but curative), 5% are sex cord stromal tumors (usually benign but associated with hormonal syndromes); also mixed, tumors not specific to testis, metastases
  • Lymphatic spread common to periaortic, iliac, mediastinal and supraclavicular nodes but not to inguinal nodes unless previous scrotal or inguinal surgery or invasion of scrotal wall
  • Usually spreads to ipsilateral nodes first
  • Hematogenous spread to liver, lungs, brain, bones
  • Metastases may differ from primary lesion histologically
  • LDH levels correlate with tumor cell mass
  • Serum tumor markers are used for staging (S category), assessing tumor burden (LDH), response to therapy (AFP, hCG); obtain immediately after orchiectomy and if elevated, recheck to determine if elevation persists (indicates residual disease)
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