Testis and epididymis
Reviewer: Turki Al-Hussain, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 21 April 2013, last major update January 2013
Copyright: (c) 2002-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
- <1% of malignancies in males; highly curable even if advanced
- 95% are germ cell tumors (aggressive but curative), 5% are sex cord-stromal tumors (usually benign but associated with hormonal syndromes); also mixed, tumors not specific to testis, metastases
- Lymphatic spread common to periaortic, iliac, mediastinal and supraclavicular nodes, but not to inguinal nodes unless previous scrotal or inguinal surgery or invasion of scrotal wall
- Usually spreads to ipsilateral nodes first
- Hematogenous spread to liver, lungs, brain, bones
- Metastases may differ from primary lesion histologically
- LDH levels correlate with tumor cell mass
- Serum tumor markers are used for staging (S category), assessing tumor burden (LDH), response to therapy (AFP, hCG); obtain immediately after orchiectomy and if elevated, recheck to determine if elevation persists (indicates residual disease)
End of Testis and epididymis > Testicular neoplasms > General
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