Testis and epididymis
Testicular tumors

Author: Turki Al-Hussain, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 24 July 2017, last major update January 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: testicular neoplasms [title]

Table of Contents
Definition / general
Cite this page: Testicular tumors - general. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/testistestgeneral.html. Accessed October 17th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • < 1% of malignancies in males; highly curable even if advanced
  • 95% are germ cell tumors (aggressive but curative), 5% are sex cord stromal tumors (usually benign but associated with hormonal syndromes); also mixed, tumors not specific to testis, metastases
  • Lymphatic spread common to periaortic, iliac, mediastinal and supraclavicular nodes but not to inguinal nodes unless previous scrotal or inguinal surgery or invasion of scrotal wall
  • Usually spreads to ipsilateral nodes first
  • Hematogenous spread to liver, lungs, brain, bones
  • Metastases may differ from primary lesion histologically
  • LDH levels correlate with tumor cell mass
  • Serum tumor markers are used for staging (S category), assessing tumor burden (LDH), response to therapy (AFP, hCG); obtain immediately after orchiectomy and if elevated, recheck to determine if elevation persists (indicates residual disease)