Reviewer: Adriana Handra-Luca, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 3 February 2013, last major update October 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Composed of imperfect rings of hyaline cartilage, fibrous tissue, muscular fibers, mucous membranes and glands
● 16-20 imperfect rings, with circular cartilaginous defect posterior, and replaced by fibrous tissue and muscular fibers
● Each cartilage is 4 mm in depth, 1 mm in thickness
● Are elastic, but may be calcified later in life
● Thick layer covers outer surface of cartilaginous ring, thin layer covers inner surface
● Both layers merge at upper and lower margins of cartilaginous rings
● Longitudinal and transverse layers of smooth muscle
● Continuous with laryngeal and bronchial membranes
● Ciliated columnar epithelium overlying areolar and lymphoid tissue with elastic fibers, blood vessels, nerves, mucous glands
End of Trachea > Normal histology
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