Normal histology

Author: Adriana Handra-Luca, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 9 November 2017, last major update October 2012

Copyright: (c) 2002-2017,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Trachea histology [title]

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Cite this page: Handra-Luca, A. Normal histology. website. Accessed January 23rd, 2019.
Definition / general
  • Composed of imperfect rings of hyaline cartilage, fibrous tissue, muscular fibers, mucous membranes and glands
  • 16 - 20 imperfect rings, with circular cartilaginous defect posterior and replaced by fibrous tissue and muscular fibers
  • Each cartilage is 4 mm in depth, 1 mm in thickness
  • Are elastic but may be calcified later in life

Fibrous tissue:
  • Thick layer covers outer surface of cartilaginous ring, thin layer covers inner surface
  • Both layers merge at upper and lower margins of cartilaginous rings

Muscular tissue:
  • Longitudinal and transverse layers of smooth muscle

Mucus membrane:
  • Continuous with laryngeal and bronchial membranes
  • Ciliated columnar epithelium overlying areolar and lymphoid tissue with elastic fibers, blood vessels, nerves, mucous glands
Diagrams / tables

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Microscopic (histologic) images

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