Reviewers: Sean Williamson, M.D., (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 12 July 2012, last major update May 2012
Copyright: (c) 2002-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.
● Stones (<= 5 mm), usually lodge at (a) ureteropelvic junction, (b) where ureters cross iliac artery and (c) where ureters enter bladder
● Strictures (congenital or due to sclerosing retroperitoneal fibrosis)
● Tumors, blood clots, neurogenic causes
● Pregnancy, local inflammation, endometriosis, local tumors (ureteral obstruction is a major cause of death from cervical carcinoma)
Sclerosing retroperitoneal fibrosis:
● Adults 40+
● 70% idiopathic; others associated with ergot derivatives, beta blockers, adjacent inflammation, local tumors
● Associated with mediastinal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, Riedel thyroiditis
● May have autoimmune origin, related to the spectrum of IgG4 associated disease (case report of 39 year old man, Pathol Res Pract 2011;207:712)
● Lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils
● Variable granulomatous inflammation
End of Ureters > Obstructive lesions
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