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Malignant tumors


Reviewers: Sean Williamson, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 2 June 2012, last major update June 2012
Copyright: (c) 2002-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Primary tumor (T)

TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed
T0: No evidence of primary tumor
Ta: Papillary noninvasive carcinoma
Tis: Carcinoma in situ
T1: Tumor invades subepithelial connective tissue
T2: Tumor invades the muscularis
T3: For renal pelvis: tumor invades beyond muscularis into peripelvic fat or the renal parenchyma
         For ureter: tumor invades beyond muscularis into periureteric fat
T4: Tumor invades adjacent organs, or through the kidney into the perinephric fat

Regional lymph nodes (N)

Note: laterality does not affect the N classification

NX: Regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
N0: No regional lymph node metastasis
N1: Metastasis in a single lymph node, 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
N2: Metastasis in a single lymph node, more than 2 cm but not more than 5 cm in greatest dimension, or multiple lymph nodes, none more than 5 cm in greatest dimension
N3: Metastasis in a lymph node, more than 5 cm in greatest dimension

Distant metastasis (M)

M0: No distant metastasis
M1: Distant metastasis

Anatomic stage / prognostic groups

Stage 0a: Ta N0 M0
Stage 0is: Tis N0 M0
Stage I: T1 N0 M0
Stage II: T2 N0 M0
Stage III: T3 N0 M0
Stage IV: T4 N0 M0 or Any T N1-3 M0 or M1

End of Ureters > Malignant tumors > Staging

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