Page views in 2019: 190
Page views in 2020 to date: 203
Stains and molecular markers topic template

Revised: 14 May 2020
Copyright: 2018-2020, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Examples of well written Stains and molecular marker topics: GATA3 and INSM1

For ease of use, we put topic headings in the same order. Please put some text under each heading, but do not include obvious or repetitive information. If you think there is nothing to add, please write "not relevant to this topic", "repetitive with __ heading" or "unknown at this time." Do not delete any topic headings.


Author 1

Author name with degrees: ___________________________________________

Author rank (M.D. candidate / Resident / Fellow / Instructor / Assistant, Associate or Full Professor): ___________________________________________

Author leadership roles (maximum of 2) (ex: Director of Surgical Pathology, Vice Chair of Anatomic Pathology, Director of Cytopathology): ___________________________________________

Author institution name: ___________________________________________

Author institution city, state, zip code and country: ___________________________________________

Author email address: ___________________________________________


Author 2

Author name with degrees: ___________________________________________

Author rank (Assistant, Associate or Full Professor): ___________________________________________

Author leadership roles (maximum of 2) (ex: Director of Surgical Pathology, Vice Chair of Anatomic Pathology, Director of Cytopathology): ___________________________________________

Author institution name: ___________________________________________

Author institution city, state, zip code and country: ___________________________________________

Author email address: ___________________________________________



Chapter name: ___________________________________________

Section and subsection (in the Table of Contents): ___________________________________________

Topic name:___________________________________________



Definition / general
A 1 - 2 sentence summary of the topic.

  • >


Essential features
This topic heading should be completed after the rest of the topic is finished, and should duplicate the 3 - 5 most important points mentioned elsewhere in the topic. In other words, it should list what every pathologist should know about the topic or what would be in a Board Review book.

  • >


Terminology
Other names used today or historically that pathologists may be more familiar with.

  • >


Pathophysiology
Step by step details of how the marker typically works in the body beyond what is stated in Definition / general.

  • >


Diagrams
Those that don't automatically fit in another section. Provide a brief caption for all diagrams and a detailed figure legend if this is your own diagram.


Clinical features
Anything clinical not included above or below. Includes clinical conditions associated with an altered biomarker.

  • >


Interpretation
Describe which part of the cell stains (cytoplasm, nucleus, Golgi, cell membrane) and any relevant staining patterns (diffuse, dot-like).

  • >


Uses by pathologists
How are these results typically used by practicing pathologists? For some markers, there is "no current clinical use by pathologists."

  • >


Prognostic factors
Favorable or unfavorable prognostic factors for a condition based on the biomarker result. Overall prognosis, recurrence rates, etc.

  • >


Microscopic (histologic) description
Any features describing staining patterns beyond what is stated above under Interpretation.

  • >


Microscopic (histologic) images
The author must take and submit high quality representative micro images. Include relevant H&E images followed by corresponding stain images. For each image, submit both a caption and a figure legend in the manuscript word document. Do not include your name, twitter handle, institution or logo on the image. The caption will appear below the thumbnail of the image and should be 1 - 4 words describing the image findings, such as "cytologic atypia", "chronic inflammation", "epithelioid cells", "chromogranin" or "AE1 / AE3". Do not use captions such as "Case 1", "Various images", "H&E" or "100x". The figure legend will appear when the image is open and must contain all relevant information including site, procedure, diagnosis, key histologic findings and stain. Do not use figure legends such as "Case 1" or "Representative images". We will remove all existing outside micro images.


Virtual slides
Please check these sites: University of Toronto, University of Michigan. Provide a brief 1 - 4 word caption for each slide. If no virtual slides found, please advise. Please limit slides to 6 per topic and only include the most relevant / representative slides.


Positive staining - normal
Describe tissues that are typically positive for the biomarker. Journal references are mandatory.

  • >


Positive staining - disease
Provide a list of the names of relevant diseases / tumors that are positive at least 50% of the time for the biomarker. Diseases / tumors that are predominantly negative for the biomarker should go in the negative staining section. Begin each bullet with the name(s) of the disease(s) / tumor(s). If not uniformly positive, provide percentage of cases. Journal references are mandatory.

  • >


Negative staining
Describe diseases / tumors that are typically negative for the biomarker. Give percentages if not uniformly negative. Journal references are mandatory.

  • >


Molecular / cytogenetics description
Description of DNA / RNA findings based on testing via sequencing, PCR, FISH, CISH, ISH, cytogenetics, etc.

  • >


Molecular / cytogenetics images
Images of FISH, CISH, ISH, electropherograms, PCR gels, karyograms, etc. For images you submit, provide a brief 1 - 4 word caption to appear below the thumbnail of the image and a longer figure legend to appear when the image is opened.


Sample pathology report
For companion diagnostic tests, provide a sample pathology report with an example result, interpretation criteria and any disclaimer information that is included. Refer to PDL1 IHC 22C3 for an example.

  • >


Additional references
General references for this topic not included above.

  • >


Board Review Question(s)
Prepare at least 1 board review style question that highlights important content from this topic. These are not actual questions from the Pathology boards but review questions written in a similar format. The questions should test basic, essential diagnostic concepts that all pathologists should know rather than minor details. The topic needs to contain all information relevant to correct and incorrect answers. The first question must contain an image of the entity followed by a multiple choice question, such as "Which of the following is true about XXX tumor/disease?" The image can be reused from the topic. Do not use the format "Which of the following is false?" Questions should have only one answer. Do not use responses "all of the above", "none of the above", "A and C", etc. This question will be part of our Board Review page so the reader will not know the topic with which it is associated. Therefore you must make the organ clear in the question and the diagnosis clear in the answer. The second question may have an image associated with it but an image is not required. Click here for examples.


Board Review Answer(s)
Answers to the Question(s) above, sorted alphabetically by the first letter in the answer.