Acquired non-neoplastic anomalies
Lithiasis (stones)

Topic Completed: 1 July 2011

Revised: 14 December 2018

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Lithiasis

Alcides Chaux, M.D.
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Cite this page: Chaux A Lithiasis (stones). website. Accessed May 27th, 2020.
Definition / general
  • Usually solitary phosphate stones
  • May be urate or oxalate
  • More common in males, usually elderly
  • In developing countries, also occur in prepubescent boys (primary idiopathic calculi)
  • Usually the manifestation of an underlying pathologic condition such as voiding dysfunction (prostatic nodular hyperplasia, urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture, neurogenic bladder) or foreign body (catheter)
  • Calculi may form in upper urinary tract, pass into the bladder, and be retained there (migrant calculi)
Clinical features
  • Usually solitary, but up to 25% may be multiple
  • Irritative voiding symptoms, intermittent urinary stream, urinary tract infections, hematuria, pelvic pain
  • Mechanical removal, cystolithotripsy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy
  • Recur in 10% of patients after removal
Additional references
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