Stains & CD markers
CD10


Last author update: 7 April 2023
Last staff update: 7 April 2023

Copyright: 2002-2024, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD10

Bradford Siegele, M.D., J.D.
Page views in 2023: 54,952
Page views in 2024 to date: 7,492
Cite this page: Siegele B. CD10. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cdmarkerscd10.html. Accessed February 23rd, 2024.
Definition / general
  • Cell membrane zinc dependent metalloendopeptidase that is widely distributed in hematopoietic cells and hematopoietic neoplasms, normal kidney tissue and renal neoplasms, as well as a wide variety of additional tissues
  • Important in diagnosis, subclassification and surveillance of B lymphoblastic leukemia (B ALL) (OMIM: Membrane Metalloendopeptidase; MME [Accessed 17 January 2023])
  • Useful in diagnosis of other entities but must be used with caution, as staining is nonspecific
Essential features
  • Membranous marker with extensive expression in normal tissues, complicating interpretation
  • Critical for use in diagnosis and subclassification of leukemias (e.g., B lymphoblastic leukemia, mixed phenotype acute leukemia, etc.) and lymphomas (e.g., follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma)
  • Additional uses in diagnosis of solid tumors (e.g., renal cell carcinoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas, etc.)
Terminology
  • Cluster of differentiation 10
  • Also called common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), membrane metalloendopeptidase (MME), neutral endopeptidase, membrane associated (NEP), neutral endopeptidase 24.11, neprilysin, EC 3.4.24.11, enkephalinase, atriopeptidase
Pathophysiology
  • Encoded by MME gene
  • 85-110 kDa cell membrane metalloendopeptidase at 3q25.1-q25.2 that inactivates bioactive peptides, including atrial natriuretic factor, bombesin, β amyloid, endothelin 1, enkephalins, gastrin and substance P and through the cytoplasmic domain, directly interacts with ezrin / radixin / moesin proteins, Lyn kinase and the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein (J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2010;32:2)
  • In epithelial cells, CD10 loss from methylation leads to increased cell migration, cell growth and cell survival, contributing to neoplastic development and progression (J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2010;32:2, Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1751:52)
  • In the central nervous system, CD10 knockout mice demonstrate increased levels of Aβ peptides in the brain and exhibit amyloid-like deposits with signs of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and behavioral deficits (J Neurosci Res 2006;84:1871, Science 2001;292:1550)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, CD10 decrease or loss resulting from MME gene loss of function mutations are associated with adult onset autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (AR-CMT) (Ann Neurol 2016;79:659)
Diagrams / tables

Contributed by Bradford Siegele, M.D., J.D.
Hans classification

Hans classification

Interpretation
Uses by pathologists
Prognostic factors
  • CD10- B lymphoblastic leukemia / lymphoma is associated with t(v;11q23.3); KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement, infantile (< 1 year of age) presentation and poor prognosis (Leukemia 2002;16:1233)
  • CD10 in diffuse large B cell lymphoma is a marker for germinal center phenotype (also HGAL, BCL6, CD38, LMO2), generally considered a favorable prognostic factor, secondary in part to association with cell of origin classification (germinal center B cell versus activated B cell) (Mod Pathol 2005;18:1113, J Hematop 2009;2:187)
  • Stromal expression in invasive breast carcinoma, no special type is associated with increased biologic aggressiveness and poor prognosis (Mod Pathol 2007;20:84, Virchows Arch 2002;440:589)
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Bradford Siegele, M.D., J.D.
Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL, PAX5+

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL, PAX5+

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL, CD10+

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL, CD10+

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL, TdT+

Lymphoblasts in B ALL / LBL, TdT+


Starry sky of Burkitt lymphoma

Starry sky of Burkitt lymphoma

Burkitt lymphoma cells, CD20+

Burkitt lymphoma cells, CD20+

Burkitt lymphoma cells, CD10+

Burkitt lymphoma cells, CD10+

Burkitt lymphoma cells, BCL6+

Burkitt lymphoma cells, BCL6+

Burkitt lymphoma cells, TdT-

Burkitt lymphoma cells, TdT-


Large atypical cells of DLBCL

Large atypical cells of DLBCL

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, OCT2+

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, OCT2+

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, CD10+

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, CD10+

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, BCL6+

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, BCL6+

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, MUM1 variable

Large atypical cells of DLBCL, MUM1 variable


Atypical cells and blood vessels of AITL

Atypical cells and blood vessels of AITL

Atypical cells of AITL, CD3+

Atypical cells of AITL, CD3+

Atypical cells of AITL, CD4+

Atypical cells of AITL, CD4+

Atypical cells of AITL, CD8-

Atypical cells of AITL, CD8-

Atypical cells of AITL, CD10+

Atypical cells of AITL, CD10+

Atypical cells of AITL, ICOS+

Atypical cells of AITL, ICOS+


Nodules of atypical cells of FL

Nodules of atypical cells of FL

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, CD20+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, CD20+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, CD10+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, CD10+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, BCL2+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, BCL2+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, BCL6+

Nodules of atypical cells of FL, BCL6+

Atypical follicular dendritic cell meshworks of FL, CD21+

Atypical follicular
dendritic cell
meshworks of
FL, CD21+


Pseudopapillae of SPN

Pseudopapillae of SPN

Pseudopapillae of SPN, CD10+

Pseudopapillae of SPN, CD10+

Pseudopapillae of SPN, alpha-1 antitrypsin+

Pseudopapillae of SPN, alpha-1 antitrypsin+

Endometriosis of sigmoid colon

Endometriosis of sigmoid colon

Endometriosis of sigmoid colon, CD10+

Endometriosis of sigmoid colon, CD10+

Endometriosis of sigmoid colon, ER+

Endometriosis of sigmoid colon, ER+


Moderately atypical spindle cells of ESS

Moderately atypical spindle cells of ESS

Spindle cells of ESS, CD10+

Spindle cells of ESS, CD10+

Minimally atypical cells of CCRCC

Minimally atypical cells of ccRCC

Atypical cells of CCRCC, CD10+

Atypical cells of ccRCC, CD10+

Atypical cells of CCRCC, CAIX+

Atypical cells of ccRCC, CAIX+

Atypical cells of CCRCC, vimentin+

Atypical cells of ccRCC, vimentin+


Atypical cells of CCRCC, CK7-

Atypical cells of ccRCC, CK7-

Atypical cells of CCRCC, CD117-

Atypical cells of ccRCC, CD117-

Atypical cells of CCRCC, CD15-

Atypical cells of ccRCC, CD15-



Contributed by Jijgee Munkhdelger, M.D., Ph.D. and Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D.
Missing Image

Myoepithelial layer on CD10

Missing Image

Breast tubular adenoma immunoprofile

Virtual slides

Images hosted on other servers:

Follicular lymphoma, duodenal

Renal cell carcinoma, clear cell type

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas

Leiomyoma, cellular

Positive staining - normal
  • Hematopoietic cells:
    • Hematogones, pre-T cells, T follicular helper cells, germinal center B cells, mature granulocytes
  • Other cells:
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining
  • Leukemia / lymphomas:
    • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL / SLL), EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorders
    • Lymphoplasmacytic (LPL) (usually), mantle cell, marginal zone (MALT, splenic, nodal) (usually), primary cutaneous diffuse large B cell, leg type, pyothorax associated
    • Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) (very rare) (Leuk Lymphoma 2012;53:1032)
    • Hairy cell leukemia (10%) (Am J Clin Pathol 2003;120:228)
    • Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (some), plasma cell myeloma (some), primary cutaneous diffuse large B cell (variable), plasmablastic (variable), primary mediastinal B cell (32%) (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:1277)
  • Other:
    • Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (stromal cells), clear cell carcinoma of female genital tract
    • Colon (normal, diseased), erythroid and myeloid precursors, hemangioblastoma, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and basal cell hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma (all Gleason patterns 2 and 3, some 4 and 5) (Hum Pathol 2003;34:450)
    • Melanoma (40%) (Mod Pathol 2004;17:1251)
    • Schwannoma (45%)
Flow cytometry images

Contributed by Bradford Siegele, M.D., J.D. and Aashish Khatri, M.L.S., M.B.A.
Flow cytometric analysis (diagnostic) Flow cytometric analysis (minimal residual disease)

Flow cytometric analysis, B ALL / LBL

Flow cytometric analysis (diagnostic)

Flow cytometric analysis, T ALL / LBL



Images hosted on other servers:

Flow cytometric analysis, DLBCL

Sample pathology report
  • Lymph node, right neck level 5, excision:
    • Large B cell lymphoma (see comment)
    • Morphology: diffuse large B cell type
    • Hans criteria: germinal center B cell phenotype (CD10+, BCL6+, MUM1-)
    • Double expressor status: double expressor phenotype (BCL2+, MYC+)
    • Ki67 proliferation index: high (60 - 70%)
    • EBER in situ hybridization studies: negative
    • Comment: The findings are consistent with a diagnosis of a CD10+ large B cell lymphoma, with diffuse large B cell morphology. Ancillary studies, including fluorescence in situ hybridization studies to evaluate for MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 rearrangement status, are pending and will be reported in an addendum.
Board review style question #1

A 72 year old man presented for evaluation of a distal gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma, with staging computed tomography (CT) radiography that incidentally revealed bulky confluent mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Excision of mesenteric lymph nodes show effacement of nodal architecture as well as infiltration of mesenteric fat by a nodular infiltrate of small lymphoid cells with cleaved nuclei and condensed chromatin. The tumor cells are positive for CD45, CD20, CD10, BCL6 and BCL2. The images above show H&E, CD20, CD10 and BCL2 staining. The Ki67 proliferation index is ~5%. The tumor cells are negative for CD5 and CD23. What molecular / cytogenetic abnormality may be associated with this lymphoma?

  1. Deletion of 13q14.3
  2. MYD88 L265P mutation
  3. t(11;14)(q13;q32)
  4. t(11;18)(q21;q21)
  5. t(14;18)(q32;q21)
Board review style answer #1
E. t(14;18)(q32;q21). The morphologic appearance, including nodular infiltrates of small lymphoid cells with cleaved nuclei and condensed chromatin, in conjunction with the immunophenotype showing lymphoid cell positivity for CD20, CD10, BCL6 and BCL2, with a low Ki67 proliferation index, is compatible with a diagnosis of a low grade (grade 1 - 2) follicular lymphoma. The t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation between the IGH and BCL2 genes is present in approximately 90% of grade 1 - 2 follicular lymphomas. Other small B cell lymphomas demonstrate different immunophenotypes and characteristic cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma (CD20+, CD10-, CD5+, CD23+; deletion of 13q14.3), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (CD20+, CD10-, CD5-; MYD88 L265P mutation) and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) (CD20+, CD10-, CD5-, t(11;18)(q21;q21) [pulmonary and gastric] and t(14;18)(q32;q21) [thyroid, ocular adnexa, orbit and skin]), aiding in diagnostic differentiation.

Comment Here

Reference: CD10
Back to top
Image 01 Image 02