Stains & CD markers

Last author update: 1 September 2013
Last staff update: 17 January 2023 (update in progress)

Copyright: 2002-2023,, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD10[title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
Page views in 2022: 47,563
Page views in 2023 to date: 3,934
Cite this page: Pernick N. CD10. website. Accessed January 30th, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Cell membrane metallopeptidase widely distributed in hematopoietic cells and their neoplasms
  • Important in diagnosis of preB-ALL (OMIM #120520)
  • Useful in diagnosis of other entities (see below), but must be used with caution, as staining is nonspecific
  • Also called Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen (CALLA), neutral endopeptidase 24.11, neprilysin, enkephalinase
  • 90-110 kDa cell membrane metallopeptidase at 3q21-27 which inactivates bioactive peptides, including bombesin
  • In epithelial cells, CD10 loss from methylation leads to increased cell migration, cell growth and cell survival, contributing to neoplastic development and progression (J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2010;32:2)
Uses by pathologists
  • Apical surface staining only: well differentiated carcinoma of colon, pancreas, prostate (Am J Clin Pathol 2000;113:374)
  • Diffuse cytoplasmic or membranous / Golgi staining pattern: adenocarcinoma (poorly differentiated), endometrial stromal sarcoma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL):
  • One of first markers to identify leukemic cells in children (hence its name)
  • Found on ALL cells which derive from pre-B lymphocytes

Ectopic prostate:
Endometrial stromal tumors:
Gynecologic tumors:
  • Mesonephric remnants and tumors are CD10+
  • CD10 differentiates metastatic renal cell carcinoma (CD10+, Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:178) from primary clear cell carcinoma (CD10-)

Hepatocellular carcinoma vs. non-hepatocellular carcinoma:
Lymphoma: angioimmunoblastic T cell (AITL):
Lymphoma: Burkitt:
Lymphoma: diffuse large B cell:
Lymphoma: follicular:
Microvillous inclusion disease:
  • Confirm diagnosis of solid and papillary neoplasm (CD10+, Am J Surg Pathol 2000;24:1361)
  • Differentiates mucinous cystic neoplasms (CD10+ / CK20+) from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of branch duct type (CD10- / CK20-, Pancreas 2009;38:558)

Skin tumors:
  • Staining patterns may differentiate basal cell carcinoma-epithelial staining, trichoblastoma-peritumoral stromal staining (Int J Dermatol 2009;48:713), squamous cell carcinoma-strong stromal staining (Iran J Med Sci 2013;38:100)
  • Differentiates atypical fibroxanthoma (diffuse membranocytoplasmic staining) from spindle cell melanoma and sarcomatoid squamous cell carcinoma (CD10-, J Cutan Pathol 2010;37:744)

Vascular tumors:
Microscopic (histologic) images

Scroll to see all images:

Contributed by Jijgee Munkhdelger, M.D., Ph.D. and Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D.
Missing Image

Myoepithelial layer on CD10

Missing Image

Breast tubular adenoma immunoprofile

Images hosted on other servers:

Missing Image Missing Image Missing Image Missing Image

Noninvasive and invasive urothelial carcinoma

Missing Image

Bladder urothelial carcinoma

Missing Image

Myoepithelium (fig B, F)

Missing Image

Normal and DCIS

Missing Image


Missing Image Missing Image Missing Image

Stromal staining in invasive ductal carcinoma

Missing Image Missing Image

Malignant phyllodes tumor

Missing Image

Adenosis (fig B)

Missing Image

Kidney hemangioblastoma (fig D)

Missing Image


Lymph node:
Missing Image

Metastatic prostate carcinoma

Missing Image Missing Image

Metastatic seminoma

Missing Image Missing Image

Basal cell carcinoma (fig B)

Missing Image

Squamous cell carcinoma (fig B)

Missing Image Missing Image


Small intestine:
Missing Image

Microvillous inclusion disease

Positive staining - normal
    Hematopoietic cells:
    • PreB cells, preT cells; some T cells, follicular center (germinal center) cells, granulocytes

    Other cells:
    • Adrenal cortex, brain, choroid plexus
    • Endometrial stroma, endothelial cells (some, Hypertension 1995;26:230), fibroblasts
    • GU (male) epithelium, hepatocytes, kidney microvilli
    • Liver, mesonephric remnants, myoepithelial cells (breast, Mod Pathol 2002;15:397, J Clin Pathol 2004;57:625)
    • Ovary, placenta (cytotrophoblast, intermediate trophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast), prostate basal and secretory cells
    • Small intestine (linear brush border staining, variable loss with active enteritis, Mod Pathol 2011;24:1627), Wolffian (but not Müllerian) type epithelium
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining
    Leukemia / lymphomas:
    • AML, Burkitt-like, CLL, EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorders
    • Lymphoplasmacytic, mantle cell, marginal zone, pyothorax associated

    • Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (stromal cells), clear cell carcinoma of female genital tract, CNS hemangioblastoma
    • Colon (normal, diseased), erythroid and myeloid precursors, prostatic high grade PIN and basal cell hyperplasia (Hum Pathol 2003;34:450), prostate adenocarcinoma (all Gleason patterns 2 and 3, some 4 and 5)
Flow cytometry images

Images hosted on other servers:

CD10+ vs. CD10- diffuse large B cell lymphoma

Back to top
Image 01 Image 02