Stains & CD markers

Last author update: 1 August 2013
Last staff update: 10 May 2023

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PubMed Search: CD100[title], CD101 [title], CD102 [title], CD103 [title], CD104 [title], CD106[title], CD107a [title], CD107b [title], CD108, CD109 [title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. CD100-109. website. Accessed April 14th, 2024.
  • Also called SEMA4D, semaphorin 4D
  • Integral membrane protein and ligand for CD72 and plexin B1
  • Functions:
    1. Regulates axonal growth cone guidance in the developing CNS through its receptor plexin B1, which may be related to its expression in invading islands of transformed epithelial cells (but not normal and noninvasive dysplastic epithelium) (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103:9017)
    2. Evokes angiogenic responses from endothelial cells (Blood 2005;105:4321)
    3. Impairs monocyte migration
    4. After vascular injury, platelet associated CD100 binds to CD100 receptors on nearby platelets to promote thrombus formation (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007;104:1621)
    5. Increases CD45 induced T cell adhesion
    6. Down regulates B cell expression of CD23
  • Expression may have prognostic value in soft tissue sarcoma (Cancer 2007;110:164)
  • Uses by pathologists: no significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: most hematopoietic cells including platelets, increased expression after T cell activation
  • Negative staining: immature bone marrow cells
  • References: OMIM: 601866 [Accessed 30 April 2021], Wikipedia: Semaphorins [Accessed 30 April 2021]
  • Also called ICAM2
  • Binds the leukocyte integrins LFA1 (CD11a / CD18) and Mac1 (CD11b / CD18)
  • Provides costimulatory signal in immune response
  • Endothelial ICAM2 mediates angiogenesis (Blood 2005;106:1636)
  • Elevated serum levels in:
  • Uses by pathologists: no significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: resting lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, vascular endothelial cells
  • Positive staining - disease: some lymphomas
  • Negative staining: neutrophils
  • Reference: OMIM: 146630 [Accessed 30 April 2021]
  • Also called integrin beta 4 chain
  • Tends to associate with alpha 6 subunit (CD49f)
  • Adhesion receptor (for laminins) in normal epithelia that plays a critical role in structure of hemidesmosomes; associated with intermediate filaments
  • May contribute to tumor progression via VEGF stimulation (Cancer Metastasis Rev 2005;24:413, J Cell Biol 2002;158:165)
  • Overexpressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (J Histochem Cytochem 2005;53:799)
  • Mutations are associated with epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (Exp Dermatol 2004;13:61)
  • Uses by pathologists: no significant clinical use by pathologists
  • Positive staining - normal: epithelium, thymocytes, Schwann cells
  • Positive staining - disease: carcinomas (some)
  • Reference: OMIM: 147557 [Accessed 30 April 2021]
  • Also called platelet activation factor
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface protein
  • Carries the biallelic platelet-specific Gov antigen system
    • Alloantibodies to HPA-15 residing on CD109 are implicated in refractoriness to platelet transfusion, fetal / neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura (Blood 2002;99:1692)
  • Positive staining - normal:
    • Activation antigen for platelets and T cells
    • Subset of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (Exp Hematol 1999;27:1282)
    • Myoepithelial cells (breast, prostate [basal cells] salivary and lacrimal glands) (Pathol Int 2007;57:245)
    • Widely expressed in other tissues
  • Negative staining: invasive ductal carcinoma (breast), prostate adenocarcinoma
  • Reference: OMIM: 608859 [Accessed 30 April 2021]
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:
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CD100: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

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CD107b: loss of staining in muscle and heart

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