Stains & CD markers

Topic Completed: 1 January 2011

Minor changes: 24 June 2021

Copyright: 2002-2022,, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD30 [title], CD32 [title], CD35 [title], CD36 [title], CD37 [title], CD39 [title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. CD30-39. website. Accessed January 21st, 2022.
  • Dendritic cell marker
  • Mediates cellular binding of particles and immune complexes that have activated complement
  • Also called erythrocyte complement receptor 1 (CR1), C3b and C4b receptor
  • Pathophysiology:
    • Binds immune complexes coated with C3b or C4b and mediates their transport to and removal by the fixed phagocyte systems of the spleen and liver
    • Cofactor for specific proteolytic cleavage of C3b and C4b by plasma serine protease factor I, which limits complement activation and produces ligands for other complement receptors
    • The Knops, McCoy, Swain-Langley and York blood group antigens are located on CD35 (Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database)
    • Follicular dendritic cells form a reticular network in the lymphoid follicle necessary to retain and present native antigens (in the form of antigen antibody immune complexes) to B cells during the secondary immune response
    • CD21, CD23 and CD35 are dendritic cell markers
  • Clinical features:
  • Uses by pathologists:
  • Positive staining - normal: follicular dendritic cells, erythrocytes; basophils, eosinophils, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages (some), B cells, T cells (10%), NK cell subset, some astrocytes
  • Positive staining - disease:
  • Occasionally other B cell lymphomas (J Appl Oral Sci 2009;17:248)
  • Negative staining:
  • Reference: OMIM: 120620 [Accessed 6 May 2021]
  • CD36
    • Scavenger receptor with numerous physiologic functions
    • Also known as platelet GPIV or GPIIIb, fatty acid translocase (FAT)
    • Pathophysiology:
      • Numerous potential physiologic functions (see Clinical Features below)
      • Serves as a scavenger receptor for oxidized phospholipids, apoptotic cells and certain microbial pathogens (Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2010;121:206)
      • Receptor for thrombospondin, collagen, oxidized LDL
      • Gives rise to Naka antigen
    • Clinical features:
      • Associated with platelet disorders:
        • Acts as cell adhesion molecule in platelet adhesion and aggregation, platelet monocyte and platelet tumor cell interactions
        • CD36 isoantibody may cause:
        • CD36 deficiency causes platelet glycoprotein IV deficiency (OMIM: 608404 [Accessed 6 May 2021])
          • More common in Asians and Africans
          • Divided into 2 subgroups
          • Type I is characterized by platelets and monocytes / macrophages exhibiting complete CD36 deficiency
          • Type II lacks the surface expression of CD36 in platelets but expression in monocytes / macrophages is near normal
        • CD36 deficiency is associated with hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and mild hypertension (Mol Cell Biochem 2007;299:19)
      • Associated with atherosclerosis:
        • Scavenger receptor for oxidized LDL and shed photoreceptor outer segments (Atherosclerosis 2006;184:15)
        • Also transports long chain fatty acids
        • Upregulated in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FASEB J 2005;19:2063)
        • Genetic variations in CD36 are associated with susceptibility to coronary heart disease type 7
        • CD36 may be taste receptor for fatty acids (J Clin Invest 2005;115:2965)
      • Associated with malaria:
        • Site of cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelial cells
        • CD36 deficiency is frequent in sub Saharan Africa and Asia and is associated surprisingly with susceptibility to severe cerebral malaria
      • Associated with Alzheimer’s disease:
        • May mediate binding to fibrillar beta amyloid
        • Present in microglia and endothelium in Alzheimer's disease
        • Low levels on peripheral blood leukocytes in Alzheimer patients (Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:515)
    • Positive staining - normal:
      • Platelets, monocytes, macrophages, basophils, endothelial cells, early erythroid cells, megakaryocytes
      • Also adipose tissue, breast epithelial cells, cardiac muscle, Sertoli cells of testis (elderly men and those with hypospermatogenesis), skeletal muscle, splenic cells (Hum Pathol 2004;35:34)
    • Positive staining - disease:
    • Negative staining: AML M0 - M2 (usually), AML M3 (Am J Clin Path 1998;109:211)
    • References: OMIM: 173510 [Accessed 6 May 2021], Wikipedia: CD36 [Accessed 6 May 2021]
    • Member of tetraspanin family (members have 4 hydrophobic domains, others are CD9, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD82 and CD151)
    • Regulates T cell proliferation (J Immunol 2004;172:2953)
    • Clinical features: inhibits IgA responses and regulates the anti-fungal immune response (PLoS Pathog 2009;5:e1000338)
    • No significant clinical use by pathologists
    • Positive staining - normal: B cells, T cells (low), neutrophils (low), monocytes (low), macrophages, dendritic cells
    • Positive staining - disease: most B cell lymphomas, some T cell lymphomas (Leukemia 1994;8:1864)
    • Negative staining: NK cells, platelets, erythrocytes, plasma cells; plasma cell neoplasms, pre-B-ALL (or low)
    • Reference: OMIM: 151523 [Accessed 6 May 2021]
    Diagrams / tables

    Images hosted on other servers:
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    CD36 and macrophage phagocytosis

    Microscopic (histologic) images

    Case #81
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    CD35: follicular dendritic cell tumor

    Images hosted on other servers:
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    CD35: liver mass

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    CD39: donor liver

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