Topic Completed: 2 June 2003

Minor changes: 16 November 2020

Copyright: 2003-2021, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Cervix[title]

Jaya Ruth Asirvatham, M.B.B.S.
Sharon Liang, M.D., Ph.D.
Page views in 2020: 1,019
Page views in 2021 to date: 896
Cite this page: Asirvatham J, Liang S. Anatomy. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cervixanatomy.html. Accessed December 7th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Cervix uteri: (latin: neck of uterus)
    • Lower 1/2 to 1/3 of length of uterus, 2.5 to 3.0 cm long, 2.0 to 2.5 cm in diameter (Wikipedia - Cervix)
    • Cylindrical, connects body of uterus (corpus uteri) to vagina via endocervical canal
    • Anteriorly abuts and is separated from bladder by connective tissue; posteriorly is covered by peritoneum that forms lining of cul-de-sac
  • Endocervix: relates to endocervical canal, fusiform, 7-8 mm in diameter, with anterior and posterior longitudinal and oblique mucosal ridges (plicae palmatae/arbor vitae uteri)
  • Ectocervix (exocervix): vaginal portion of the cervix, convex, flattened anterior-posteriorly, has anterior and posterior lips, is surrounded by fornix (a reflection of vaginal wall)
  • External os: opening of endocervical canal into vagina, round in nullipara and slit-like in parous women
  • Internal os: opening of endocervical canal into uterine cavity
  • Fornix: (latin: arch) recesses of deeper portions of vagina created by protrusion of ectocervix into vagina; anterior, posterior and a lateral fornix on either side of cervix
  • Cardinal / Mackenrodts / Lateral cervical ligaments: fibromuscular bands that fan out from lower uterine segment and cervix to lateral pelvic walls and provide main support for cervix
  • Uterosacral ligaments: connective tissue surrounding cervix and vagina that extends towards vertebrae
  • Lymphatics: cervix is drained by parametrial, internal iliac, obturator and presacral nodes
Diagrams / tables

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Local anatomy

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Sagittal section of local anatomy

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Uterus, cervix and vagina

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Gross images

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Nulliparous cervix

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