Liver and intrahepatic bile ducts - tumor
Grossing & frozen section

Topic Completed: 1 February 2012

Minor changes: 13 February 2020

Copyright: 2002-2020,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Gross[TI] liver[TI]

Deepali Jain, M.D.
Page views in 2019: 214
Page views in 2020 to date: 68
Table of Contents
Grossing | Frozen section
Cite this page: Jain D. Grossing & frozen section. website. Accessed June 1st, 2020.
  • At least one section per 2 cm of tumor for large tumors, including tumor center and periphery
  • Submit entire tumor, if can do so in 5 sections or less
  • Adjacent and distant uninvolved liver
  • Resection margins
  • Portal and hepatic veins
  • Porta hepatis
  • Lymph nodes
  • Gallbladder, if present
  • Other tissues or organs
  • Save intervening levels on biopsies for special stains
Frozen section
  • Accurate and reliable for intraoperative diagnosis of suspected liver lesions (J Clin Pathol 2006;59:352) - biliary hamartoma is most common entity confused with a malignant tumor
  • Pretransplant frozen section also used to evaluate donor livers for macrovesicular steatosis, although discrepancies exist with permanent sections in 7% (J Clin Med Res 2011;3:191)
  • Optimally, should have clinical data and serum AFP levels available
  • Should know if specimen is from a mass
Back to top