Grossing & features to report

Last author update: 1 September 2012
Last staff update: 10 May 2021

Copyright: 2003-2024,, Inc.

PubMed Search: histologic sampling lung tumors

Deepali Jain, M.D.
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Cite this page: Jain D. Grossing & features to report. website. Accessed May 19th, 2024.
  • 1 section per cm of tumor diameter, representative of grossly distinct areas
  • Margins (bronchial, pulmonary artery / vein, visceral pleura, other surgical margins)
  • Tumor and adjacent lung
  • Tumor and bronchial wall
  • Tumor and pleura
  • Bronchial mucosa proximal to tumor
Frozen section
  • May be difficult to distinguish:
  • Touch preparation cytology recommended to supplement frozen section findings (J Clin Pathol 2010;63:675)
Features to report
  • Editor's note
  • Specimen type and site (involved bronchi or segments, laterality, intact or fragmented)
  • Procedure
  • Histologic type
  • Histologic grade (incorporating nuclear atypia, mitotic index)
  • Tumor size
  • Surgical resection margins (bronchi, peribronchial and perivascular soft tissue)
  • Involvement of bronchi, surfaces covering tumor (pleura, thoracic wall, diaphragm), adjacent structures
  • Angiolymphatic invasion
  • Presence of multiple tumors (intrapulmonary metastases)
  • Pleural dissemination
  • Lymph node involvement (site of lymph nodes, number obtained, number positive, size of largest metastasis, extracapsular invasion)
  • Presence of disease in uninvolved lung / bronchi
  • Presence of histologic treatment effect (if prior chemoradiation therapy)
  • Molecular studies, as appropriate
  • Features to report by organization:
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