Soft tissue tumors

Topic Completed: 1 December 2012

Minor changes: 20 November 2019

Copyright: 2003-2019,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Neuroblastoma[TI] mediastinum

Hanni Gulwani, M.B.B.S.
Page views in 2020: 891
Page views in 2021 to date: 348
Cite this page: Gulwani H. Neuroblastoma. website. Accessed May 7th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Usually primary tumors of posterior mediastinum associated with paraspinal nerve roots; rarely represents metastases to mediastinum
  • Symptoms due to compression of nerve roots or esophagus
  • May have opsoclonus myoclonus (dancing feet and eyes) due to paraneoplastic syndrome
Clinical features
  • Young children, usually < 1 year
  • Tumors of thymus and anterior mediastinum are associated with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone
  • May relapse in central nervous system
  • Elevated HMA and VMA
  • Hyponatremia
Case reports
Gross description
  • Partially encapsulated, infiltrative, pink-gray fleshy cut surface, hemorrhage, necrosis, calcification
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Small round blue cell tumor with sheets of monomorphic cells with scant eosinophilic cytoplasm, uniform chromatin, minimal nucleoli
  • Often brisk mitotic activity
  • Necrosis, dystrophic calcification, arborizing vasculature
  • Variable fibrillary eosinophilic intercellular matrix
  • Variable ganglion cells
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Various images

Positive stains
Negative stains
Electron microscopy description
  • Complex, long, interdigitating cytoplasmic processes with microtubules
  • May have synaptic vesicles and scant neurosecretory granules
  • No / minimal basal lamina, no / minimal intermediate filaments
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