Oral cavity & oropharynx

Soft tissue tumors & proliferations

Peripheral giant cell granuloma

Last author update: 1 March 2013
Last staff update: 27 October 2023

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PubMed Search: Peripheral giant cell granuloma

Charu Thakral, M.D.
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Cite this page: Thakral C. Peripheral giant cell granuloma. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/oralcavityperipheralgiantcellgranuloma.html. Accessed November 28th, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Reactive gingival mass resembling pyogenic granuloma, which pushes teeth aside and may erode alveolar bone or involve periodontal membrane
  • Arises from periodontal ligament enclosing root of tooth
  • Central giant cell granuloma: similar to peripheral giant cell granuloma but multiloculated
  • Also called giant cell epulis, giant cell reparative granuloma, osteoclastoma, myeloid epulis
  • Usually women, 30s to 50s, although may involve children or elderly patients without teeth
Case reports

Central giant cell granuloma:
  • Excision with curettage of base of lesion extending into adjacent periodontal membrane
  • Recurs if not completely excised or source of irritation not removed (10% recurrence rate)
Clinical images

Images hosted on other servers:

Resembes pyogenic granuloma

22 year old woman:
preoperative, excision and postoperative

53 year old man:
pre and postoperative

57 year old woman:
pre and postoperative

81 year old woman:
pre and postoperative

Central giant cell granuloma:
swelling, extended to midline and excisional biopsy

Gross description
  • Nodular, pedunculated, inflammatory lesion up to 1.5 cm that protrudes from gingiva at site of chronic inflammation
  • Covered by gingival mucosa or ulcerated
Gross images

Images hosted on other servers:

22 year old woman

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Nonencapsulated aggregates of foreign body giant cells and fibroangiomatous stroma with hemorrhage, hemosiderin, acute and chronic inflammatory cells
  • Alveolar bone often expanded in edentulous patients, leading to superficial bone loss with peripheral cuffing
  • Variable mitotic activity
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Tim Bracey, M.B.Ch.B., Ph.D.

28 year old woman with rapidly growing lesion

Images hosted on other servers:

22 year old woman

81 year old woman

53 year old man

Central giant cell
granuloma: irregular
giant cells

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