Thyroid & parathyroid
Parathyroid nonmalignant
Other nonneoplastic parathyroid


Topic Completed: 1 January 2013

Minor changes: 20 January 2021

Copyright: 2003-2021, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Parathyroid cysts[TI]

Monika Roychowdhury, M.D.
Hanni Gulwani, M.B.B.S.
Page views in 2021 to date: 288
Cite this page: Roychowdhury M., Gulwani H. Other nonneoplastic parathyroid. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/parathyroidothernonneoplastic.html. Accessed May 15th, 2021.
Definition / general
Terminology
  • Parathyromatosis: microscopic foci of hyperplastic parathyroid tissue in neck associated with chief cell hyperplasia and prior surgery (Hum Pathol 1990;21:234)
Clinical features
Parathyroid cyst
  • Pure cysts are present at any age; contain high levels of parathyroid hormone; can diagnose by FNA via PTH in fluid (Am J Clin Pathol 1986;86:776)
  • Parathyroid derives from third and fourth branchial pouch, as does thymus
  • Cysts may be present in low cervical or anterosuperior mediastinum
  • Patients usually are normocalcemic and present with an asymptomatic mass
  • May be hyperplastic gland (Am J Clin Pathol 1982;77:104), adenoma with cystic degeneration, heterotopic salivary gland-like tissue (Am J Surg Pathol 2000;24:837)
  • Can diagnose by FNA if PTH in fluid (Am J Clin Pathol 1986;86:776)
  • Cystic parathyroid lesions often contain turbid or colored fluid
  • Functional parathyroid cysts more common than nonfunctional parathyroid cysts (Arch Surg 2009;144:52)
  • During resection, cyst rupture should be avoided and patients with large cysts should be managed expectantly to forestall the development of symptomatic hypocalcemia
Radiology images

Contributed by Ayana Suzuki, C.T.

Parathyroid cyst: large multilocular cyst

Case reports
Treatment
  • Parathyroid cyst: simple aspiration to diagnosis and treat, ethanol ablation for recurrent cases (Eur J Radiol 2013;82:316)
Clinical images

Contributed by Ayana Suzuki, C.T.

Parathyroid cyst: clear fluid

Gross description
Parathyroid cyst
  • Usually large, in inferior glands
  • 1 - 10 cm, unilocular, thin walled, clear fluid containing PTH, no nodules
Microscopic (histologic) description
Parathyroid cyst
  • Lined by flattened parathyroid chief cells, oxyphils, clear cells; no nodules
  • Cyst wall has uniform thickness
  • May contain granular material resembling colloid
  • No cholesterol granulomas, no cartilage, no smooth muscle
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

Parathyroid cyst: islands of parathyroid tissue

CMV
parathyroiditis in
immunosuppressed
child

Positive stains
Negative stains
Back to top
Image 01 Image 02