Penis & scrotum



Last author update: 1 February 2010
Last staff update: 26 October 2020

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PubMed Search: Balanoposthitis penis

Alcides Chaux, M.D.
Antonio L. Cubilla, M.D.
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Cite this page: Chaux A, Cubilla AL. Balanoposthitis. website. Accessed September 27th, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Common in uncircumcised newborns or uncircumcised men with poor hygiene and accumulation of smegma
  • May be due to poor hygiene, sexual transmission or associated with dermatologic disorders
  • Due to propensity of pathogenic bacteria to adhere to inner mucosal surface of foreskin
  • Often sexually transmitted in adults (Hinyokika Kiyo 2005;51:737)
  • Also sexually transmitted for adults with Candida albicans, with pathogenicity concentrated to a few genotypes (Clin Infect Dis 2008;47:1119)
Clinical features
Case reports
Clinical images

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Marked ulceration with tissue destruction

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages
  • Causative agent usually not discernable by routine examination
  • Epithelial changes such as squamous hyperplasia and ulceration can be associated with inflammation
  • Fungal hyphae may be present
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Dermis with
infiltrate and dilated
blood vessels

Positive stains
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