4 main categories

Editorial Board Member: Ricardo R. Lastra, M.D.
Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Jennifer A. Bennett, M.D.
Sanjita Ravishankar, M.D.

Last author update: 15 November 2021
Last staff update: 17 July 2023

Copyright: 2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Categories of placental injury

Sanjita Ravishankar, M.D.
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Cite this page: Ravishankar S. 4 main categories. website. Accessed September 21st, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Most placental pathologic findings can be organized into 1 of 4 major categories of placental injury (Mod Pathol 2021;34:1074)
  • This framework is used by the 2016 Amsterdam Consensus Classification (Arch Pathol Lab Med 2016;140:698)
  • These categories are also used as top line diagnoses in pathology reporting, with supporting histopathologic findings listed underneath (see Sample pathology report)
  • Existing placenta articles in this chapter are organized below within the 4 category framework
Other categories of placental pathology
Sample pathology report
  • Placenta:
    • Relatively small, mature placenta (285 g, less than third percentile for 38 weeks)
    • Findings consistent with maternal vascular malperfusion:
      • Accelerated villous maturation
      • Increased syncytial knots and perivillous fibrin
      • Multifocal villous infarction
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