Nonneoplastic placental conditions and abnormalities


Hypoxic changes

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Last staff update: 29 October 2020

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PubMed Search: Hypoxic changes placenta [title]

Mandolin S. Ziadie, M.D.
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Cite this page: Ziadie MS. Hypoxic changes. website. Accessed June 7th, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Any lesion resulting in placental hypoxia can induce downstream effects in the placental villi due to underperfusion of the intervillous space
  • These changes may be seen in pregnancies affected by maternal hypertension or superficial implantation with insufficient vascular remodeling
Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Maternal underperfusion (affecting the intervillous space) is associated with infarction and decidual arteriopathy
  • Other changes include: increased syncytial knotting (Tenney-Parker change), distal villous hypoplasia / accelerated maturation (villi are smaller than normal with finger-like outlines) and villous chorangiosis
  • Fetal hypoxia / anemia / underperfusion (affecting the chorionic villous circulation) results in hemorrhagic endovasculitis / fetal thrombotic vasculopathy
  • Increased numbers of nucleated red cells may be present
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