Skin nontumor

Infectious disorders


Last author update: 1 December 2010
Last staff update: 16 November 2020

Copyright: 2002-2023,, Inc.

PubMed Search: HIV associated infectious disorders

Mowafak Hamodat, M.B.Ch.B., M.Sc.
Page views in 2022: 1,342
Page views in 2023 to date: 348
Cite this page: Hamodat M. HIV. website. Accessed March 21st, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Acute human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a transient illness, typically presenting with an acute mononucleosis-like syndrome with mucocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, followed by detection of anti-HIV antibodies in peripheral blood
Clinical features
  • Associated with various conditions:
    • Dermatitis: interface dermatitis occurs early in HIV infection, with pronounced vacuolization of basal keratinocytes; inflammatory infiltrate consists of CD8+ T cells expressing granzyme B7 and TIA1; also histiocytes but decreased Langerhans cells (Mod Pathol 2000;13:1232)
    • Drug reaction: see topic
    • Folliculitis: infants and adults; perifollicular chronic inflammatory infiltrate, often with follicular rupture, often with marked eosinophils and occasionally eosinophilic pustules in the outer root sheath or pilar canal of the hair follicle accompanied by perivascular and interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and eosinophil infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis
    • Infections: scabies, fungi, mycobacteria, syphilis, bacillary angiomatosis
    • Lipodystrophy syndrome: therapy related complication of localized loss of fat (eMedicine)
    • Maculopapular eruptions: in 25%, in trunk with possible extension to extremities; nonspecific perivascular lymphocytes and histiocytes in upper dermis, variable papulovesicular foci with necrotic keratinocytes
    • Mucocutaneous manifestations: may occur early in disease course in children (Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2010;76:458)
    • Neoplasia: Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma (usually B cell), mycosis fungoides, oral and anorectal squamous cell carcinoma
    • Papular neutrophilic xanthoma: foamy macrophages, extracellular nuclear dust, hyaline necrosis of collagen fibers
    • Papular pruritic eruptions: anywhere on body; may wax and wane; superficial and mid-dermal perivascular lymphocytes with eosinophils, acanthosis, parakeratosis, superimposed excoriation or lichen simplex chronicus
    • Psoriasis: may be clinically confusing (Lancet Infect Dis 2010;10:470), see also topic
    • Seborrheic dermatitis: common, usually severe, involves trunk and extremities; may correlate with AIDS dementia (N Engl J Med 1984;311:189)
    • Vasculitis: occasionally leukocytoclastic, may be due to HIV directly or CMV
    • Viruses: herpes simplex (20%; painful perianal or perioral ulcers with large intranuclear inclusions), severe varicella-zoster infection, CMV (ulcerative lesions at mucocutaneous junctions), molluscum contagiosum, hairy leukoplakia, anal warts, bowenoid papulosis
    • Xerosis: generalized dry scale skin syndrome, associated with diminished sebum and sweat production accompanied by abnormal epidermal lipid release; may be associated with fissures and eczema
Clinical images

Images hosted on other servers:

Drug reaction


Papular pruritic eruptions

Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

Morbilliform drug eruption post-HAART treatment shows mild lichenoid and spongiotic reactions and subtle lymphocytic vasculopathic reaction in the upper dermis

Additional references
Back to top
Image 01 Image 02