Skin nonmelanocytic tumor


Bronchogenic cyst

Topic Completed: 1 January 2015

Minor changes: 5 November 2020

Copyright: 2002-2022,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Bronchogenic cyst [title] skin

Ghassan A. Tranesh, M.D.
Hong Qu, M.D.
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Cite this page: Tranesh G. Bronchogenic cyst. website. Accessed January 21st, 2022.
Definition / general
  • Bronchogenic cysts presenting in the skin are very rare, with fewer than 70 cases reported
  • Most are present at birth on the precordium or overlying the suprasternal notch
  • Occasionally occur near shoulder, back, scapula, neck, abdomen or chin or present at a later age
  • Believed to form from buds or diverticula that separate from foregut during development of the tracheobronchial tree
  • May be intrapulmonary or peripheral
  • Cutaneous bronchogenic cysts may result from subsequent sequestration outside the chest cavity following fusion of the mesenchymal bars of the sternum, or from active migration prior to fusion
Clinical features
  • 80% males
  • Variable presentation as cutaneous cystic nodule, sinus or papillomatous growth
  • Usually asymptomatic but may be tender or painful
  • Rarely are multiple
  • Treatment is surgical resection, if clinically indicated
Case reports
Clinical images

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Sinus in suprasternal notch

Sinus in suprasternal notch

Sinus opening

Sinus opening

Gross description
  • Skin nodule
Gross images

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Scapular bronchogenic cyst

Scapular bronchogenic cyst

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Cutaneous bronchogenic cyst occurs within dermis or subcutaneous tissue
  • Lining is usually thrown into small folds
  • Epithelium is invariably ciliated, pseudostratified cuboidal or columnar, with mucus secreting goblet cells in 50% of cases
  • May have nonciliated cuboidal, columnar and stratified squamous epithelium
  • Smooth muscle supports the mucosa in 8% of cases
  • Lymphoid follicles are found in 25% of cases, and appear to be part of a secondary inflammatory response
  • Occasionally seromucinous glands or cartilage are present
  • Cutaneous lung tissue heterotopia, in which fully developed bronchioles and alveoli are present, is considered a variant
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Ciliated respiratory epithelium

Ciliated respiratory epithelium

Respiratory and squamous epithelium

Respiratory and squamous epithelium

Cytology description
Positive stains
Differential diagnosis
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