Stains & molecular markers

Topic Completed: 1 January 2012

Minor changes: 11 May 2021

Copyright: 2003-2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: BRAF[title]

See also BRAF-melanoma

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. BRAF. website. Accessed May 15th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Serine / threonine specific protein kinase, part of the RAS / MAPK pathway regulating the growth, maturation, proliferation, survival and apoptosis of cells
  • Abbreviation for v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
  • Gene commonly mutated in papillary thyroid carcinoma and melanoma
  • V600E mutation (valine at residue 600 replaced by glutamic acid) renders BRAF constitutively active and increases its kinase activity (Nature 2002;417:949)
  • IHC with VE1 antibody is highly sensitive and specific to detect BRAF V600E mutation (Virchows Arch 2015;467:155)
Diagrams / tables

Images hosted on other servers:

MAPK signaling pathway

Clinical features
  • The drug Vemurafenib / Zelboraf®, used to treat melanoma, interrupts the BRAF / MEK / ERK pathway, only when BRAF has the V600E mutation (valine replaced by glutamic acid)
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Andrey Bychkov, M.D., Ph.D.

V600E mutant protein is diffusely expresed in tumor / cancer, but not normal tissue

Diffuse cytoplasmic staining

Negative stains
Molecular / cytogenetics description
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