Stains & CD markers
D2-40 (Podoplanin)


Last author update: 19 November 2021
Last staff update: 19 November 2021

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PubMed Search: Podoplanin D2-40 [TIAB]

Kemal Kösemehmetoğlu, M.D.
Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Kösemehmetoğlu K, Pernick N. D2-40 (Podoplanin). PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainsD240.html. Accessed May 18th, 2022.
Definition / general
  • Podoplanin is a 40 kDa, transmembrane, oncofetal, O linked sialoglycoprotein (mucin type) found on lymphatic endothelium, mesothelium and fetal testis (also other cells as indicated below)
  • D2-40 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts to podoplanin
  • Podoplanin expression is encoded by the PDPN gene (1p36.21) and regulated by the PROX1 gene
Essential features
  • D2-40 is a monoclonal antibody that reacts to podoplanin showing membranous staining
  • Mostly used to show lymphatics (e.g. lymphovascular invasion) and lymphatic differentiation in vascular tumors
  • Also useful as a part of IHC panel in mesothelioma versus adenocarcinoma and seminoma versus nonseminoma differentiation
Terminology
  • Podoplanin is also known as Aggrus, OTS8, gp36, M2A and T1A2
Pathophysiology
  • Increases endothelial cell adhesion, migration and tube formation
  • Platelet aggregation (Aggrus)
  • Barrier function in high endothelial venules
  • Maintenance of physical elasticity of lymph nodes
  • Reference: OMIM: Podoplanin; PDPN [Accessed 28 October 2021]
Interpretation
Uses by pathologists
Prognostic factors
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Kemal Kemal Kösemehmetoğlu, M.D. and Debra Zynger, M.D.
Dysgerminoma

Dysgerminoma

D2-40 in dysgerminoma

D2-40 in dysgerminoma

Tumor emboli or not?

Tumor emboli or not?

D2-40 against lymphatic emboli

D2-40 against lymphatic emboli

Dermal breast cancer lymhatic emboli or not?

Dermal breast cancer lymhatic emboli or not?

D2-40 proves lymphatic emboli

D2-40 proves lymphatic emboli


Schwannoma

Schwannoma

D2-40 expression in schwannoma

D2-40 expression in schwannoma

Ependymoma

Ependymoma

D2-40 expression in ependymoma

D2-40 expression in ependymoma

Kaposi sarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma

D2-40 expression in Kaposi sarcoma

D2-40 expression in Kaposi sarcoma


Lymphatic malformation

Lymphatic malformation

D2-40 expression proves lymphatic malformation

D2-40 expression
proves lymphatic
malformation

Differential endoothelial D2-40 expression

Differential endothelial
D2-40 expression

D2-40 expression in MIFS

D2-40 expression in MIFS

Cecal lymphangioma

Cecal lymphangioma

D2-40 in cecal lymphangioma

D2-40 in cecal lymphangioma


Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

Kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma

D2-40 in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma

D2-40 in kaposiform hemangio-endothelioma

Malignant mesothelioma

Malignant mesothelioma

D2-40 in malignant mesothelioma

D2-40 in malignant mesothelioma

Sarcomatoid areas of malignant mesothelioma

Sarcomatoid areas of malignant mesothelioma

D2-40 in sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma

D2-40 in sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma


Seminoma with IHC

Seminoma with IHC

D2-40

D2-40

Testis

Testis

D2-40 in prostate basal cells

D2-40 in prostate basal cells

Virtual slides

Images hosted on other servers:

Blood vessels, tufted hemangioma

Brain, angiomatous meningioma

Breast, Paget disease of the nipple

Positive staining - normal
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining
Electron microscopy images

Images hosted on other servers:

Dermal lymphatics

Sample pathology report
  • Right breast, core biopsy:
    • Infiltrative ductal carcinoma, grade II (see comment)
    • Comment: The presence of lymphovascular invasion was supported by D2-40, which highlighted lymphatic endothelium of vessels with tumor emboli.
Additional references
Board review style question #1

Which of the markers is expressed in the tumor shown above?

  1. AFP
  2. CD20
  3. CD30
  4. D2-40
  5. Inhibin
Board review style answer #1
D. D2-40

Comment Here

Reference: D2-40 (Podoplanin)
Board review style question #2
In which of the following differential diagnoses is D2-40 useful?

  1. Adrenocortical carcinoma versus adrenocortical adenoma
  2. Kaposi sarcoma versus angiosarcoma
  3. Mesothelioma versus squamous cell carcinoma
  4. Prostatic stromal invasion versus intraductal spread of urothelial carcinoma
  5. Seminoma versus in situ germ cell neoplasm
Board review style answer #2
D. Prostatic stromal invasion versus intraductal spread of urothelial carcinoma

Comment Here

Reference: D2-40 (Podoplanin)
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