Stains & CD markers
Gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15)


Last staff update: 20 March 2024 (update in progress)

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PubMed Search: GCDFP-15

Joshua J.X. Li, M.B.Ch.B.
Gary M. Tse, M.B.B.S.
Page views in 2024 to date: 2,858
Cite this page: Li JJX, Tse GM. Gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainsGCDFP15.html. Accessed April 15th, 2024.
Definition / general
Essential features
  • A marker of apocrine differentiation
  • Positive mainly in breast and salivary gland lesions
  • Useful in confirming breast primary in metastatic carcinomas but sensitivity is lower than GATA3
Terminology
  • BRST2
  • Prolactin inducible protein (PIP)
Pathophysiology
  • Expression of GCDFP-15 is regulated by androgen receptor (Int J Mol Med 1999;4:135)
  • Gene expression profiling revealed associations between PIP gene and cell adhesion, apoptosis and proliferation in breast cancer cells (PLoS One 2009;4:e4696)
Clinical features
Interpretation
  • Cytoplasmic staining
Uses by pathologists
  • Confirming apocrine differentiation in breast and salivary gland lesions (Virchows Arch 2022;480:177)
  • Confirming breast or salivary gland primary in metastatic carcinomas (J Mol Pathol 2022;3:219, Semin Diagn Pathol 2022;39:313)
    • Less sensitive than GATA3 and mammaglobin for hormone receptor positive breast cancers
    • Less sensitive than SOX10 for hormone receptor negative breast cancers
    • Less sensitive than TRPS1 for hormone receptor positive, nonapocrine HER2 positive and triple negative breast cancers
  • Diagnosis of salivary gland carcinomas including salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma
  • Differentiating primary extramammary Paget disease (positive) from secondary extramammary Paget disease (negative) (Arch Pathol Lab Med 1998;122:1077)
Prognostic factors
  • GCDFP-15 stain expression in breast cancer offers no independent prognostic value over hormone markers (BMC Cancer 2014;14:546)
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Joshua J.X. Li, M.B.Ch.B. and Gary M. Tse, M.B.B.S.
Breast apocrine glands GCDFP-15 (breast apocrine glands)

Breast apocrine glands

Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ GCDFP-15 (apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ)

Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ

Metastatic breast cancer GCDFP-15 (metastatic breast cancer)

Metastatic breast cancer


Salivary gland GCDFP-15 (salivary gland)

Salivary gland

Salivary duct carcinoma GCDFP-15 (salivary duct carcinoma)

Salivary duct carcinoma

Virtual slides

Images hosted on other servers:
Hidradenoma papilliferum (H&E) Hidradenoma papilliferum (GCDFP-15)

Hidradenoma papilliferum

Extramammary Paget disease (H&E) Extramammary Paget disease (GCDFP-15)

Extramammary Paget disease

Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (H&E) Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (GCDFP-15)

Apocrine ductal carcinoma in situ

Positive staining - normal
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining
Sample pathology report
  • Lung nodule, core needle biopsy:
    • Metastatic carcinoma, consistent with breast primary (see comment)
    • Comment: Sections show clusters and nests of tumor cells with a moderate amount of cytoplasm, hyperchromatic irregular nuclei and occasional distinct nucleoli. The tumor cells show immunoreactivity to GATA3, GCDFP-15 and estrogen receptor, supporting a breast primary.
Board review style question #1

Which of the following is true about GCDFP-15 stain?

  1. It can be used in differentiating primary and secondary extramammary Paget disease
  2. It is an independent prognostic marker for breast cancers
  3. It is the most sensitive marker for metastatic breast cancer
  4. It is uniformly positive in all apocrine lesions of the breast
  5. It is positive in malignant but not benign salivary gland neoplasms
Board review style answer #1
A. It can be used in differentiating primary and secondary extramammary Paget disease. GCDFP-15 is positive in primary extramammary Paget disease while negative in secondary extramammary Paget disease (Arch Pathol Lab Med 1998;122:1077). Answer B is incorrect because GCDFP-15 does not show independent prognostic power over hormone markers. Answer E is incorrect because positive staining can be seen in pleomorphic adenomas. Answer D is incorrect because the positive rate of GCDFP-15 in apocrine lesions of the breast is just over 50%. Answer C is incorrect because GATA3 and TRPS1 are superior in sensitivity to GCDFP-15 for metastatic breast cancer.

Comment Here

Reference: Gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15)
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