Molecular markers


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Last staff update: 16 December 2022

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PubMed Search: HRAS[TI] free full text[sb]

Gregory A. Hosler, M.D., Ph.D.
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Cite this page: Bradish J. HRAS. website. Accessed January 26th, 2023.
Definition / general
  • HRAS, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue, is a proto-oncogene located on chromosome 11p
  • This gene encodes for transforming protein 21, which binds GTP for activation and contains intrinsic GTPase activity (Genes Cancer 2011;2:344)
  • HRAS is very similar to NRAS and KRAS in its structure
  • HRAS is involved in both the MAPK pathway and AKT pathway
  • HRAS activates RAF enzymes (i.e. CRAF or BRAF) in the MAPK pathway
Diagrams / tables

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HRAS pathway

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Histological features

  • No specific targeted therapy against HRAS currently exists
  • No mechanisms of resistance have been evaluated
  • No resistance therapies have been evaluated
Microscopic (histologic) description
Molecular / cytogenetics description
  • HRAS mutations are most frequently found in codons 12, 13 and 61
  • Amplification of HRAS / 11p is also not infrequently identified
  • Amplification and mutations of HRAS are not mutually exclusive (Am J Pathol 2000;157:967)
  • HRAS mutations are associated with Costello syndrome (Wikipedia: Costello Syndrome [Accessed 12 June 2018]), which is associated with delayed development, intellectual disability, cardiomyopathy, coarse facial features, loose skin and a predilection for developing rhabdomyosarcoma, bladder cancer or neuroblastomas
  • Detection of HRAS / 11p amplification can be performed using FISH probes
  • Detection of specific HRAS mutations can be performed using PCR assays (Am J Pathol 2000;157:967)
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