Stains & CD markers
Adenovirus

Editorial Board Member: Raul S. Gonzalez, M.D.
Editor-in-Chief: Debra L. Zynger, M.D.
Vikas Mehta, M.D.
Maria M. Picken, M.D., Ph.D.

Last author update: 20 September 2019
Last staff update: 22 July 2022

Copyright: 2019-2022, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: Adenovirus stains

Vikas Mehta, M.D.
Maria M. Picken, M.D., Ph.D.
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Cite this page: Mehta V, Picken MM. Adenovirus. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainsadenovirus.html. Accessed August 17th, 2022.
Definition / general
  • Anti-adenovirus is a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies derived from cell culture supernatant
Essential features
  • Anti-adenovirus is a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies with nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern
  • False positives are extremely uncommon
  • Most false negatives (cases with positive viral cytopathic effect and negative IHC) result from exhaustion of the diagnostic tissue
Pathophysiology
  • Double stranded DNA viruses with linear genome capped by proteins at both 5' ends with nonenveloped capsule
  • Adenovirus produces nuclear inclusions without cytomegaly
  • Virus binds to coxsackie adenovirus receptor or major histocompatibility class I molecule followed by viral internalization
  • Viral replication cycle takes about 32 - 36 hours and up to 10,000 virions can be produced; new virions remain in cell until it degenerates and lyses (Tille: Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, 13th Edition, 2013)
Clinical features
  • Adenoviruses are spread via aerosols, in fecal matter or through close contact
  • Adenovirus infection is especially common in military barracks and college dormitories
  • Children under 14 and immunocompromised patients including transplant recipients are especially vulnerable
Interpretation
  • Nuclear and cytoplasmic
  • False positives are extremely uncommon
  • Most false negatives (cases with positive viral cytopathic effect and negative IHC) result from exhaustion of the diagnostic tissue (Am J Clin Pathol 2017;147:96)
  • Other limitations of this and other IHC tests are fixation time of tissues, dilution factor of antibody, retrieval method utilized and incubation time; optimal performance should be established through positive and negative controls
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images

Contributed by Vikas Mehta, M.D. and Maria M. Picken, M.D., Ph.D.

Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression

Positive staining - disease
Electron microscopy images

Contributed by Maria M. Picken, M.D., Ph.D.

Crystalline array

Molecular / cytogenetics description
  • Gene amplification or DNA in situ hybridization can be used for identification
Board review style question #1

What is the immunohistochemical staining pattern of adenovirus in adenovirus nephritis?

  1. Cytoplasmic
  2. Dot-like
  3. Nuclear
  4. Nuclear and cytoplasmic
Board review style answer #1
D. Nuclear and cytoplasmic

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Reference: Adenovirus
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