Stains & molecular markers

Topic Completed: 1 October 2013

Minor changes: 27 May 2021

Copyright: 2003-2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: BCR-ABL [title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. BCR-ABL. website. Accessed June 23rd, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Protein fusion product formed by t(9;22)(q34;q11), called the Philadelphia chromosome
  • Either p210 or p185 hybrid proteins
  • p210 formed by bcr from 5' to b2/b3 of M (major)-bcr joined to second exon of c-abl (between IA and IB); has constitutive tyrosine kinase activity; associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia
  • p185 formed by bcr from 5' to m (minor)-bcr; more potent tyrosine kinase than p210; associated with ALL or AML
  • abl overexpression causes resistance to apoptosis induced by Fas, ceramide or chemotherapy
  • Found in 25% adult ALL, 5% pediatric ALL; 95%+ of patients with CML
  • Poor prognostic factor in pediatric ALL

  • Also called c-abl
  • Gene at 9q34.1, named after ABelson murine Leukemia virus
  • Abelson family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, ABL1 and ABL2, transduces diverse extracellular signals to protein networks that control proliferation, survival, migration and invasion (Nat Rev Cancer 2013;13:559)
  • Dysregulated tyrosine kinase activates a network of signals that contributes to cytokine independent growth, resistance to apoptosis and genetic instability (Cancer Control 2009;16:100)
  • Also regulates BMP2 induced osteogenesis (J Biol Chem 2013;288:24503)
Clinical features
Diagrams / tables

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Microscopic (histologic) images

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Liver: hepatocellular carcinoma, ABL

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