Stains & molecular markers

Topic Completed: 1 August 2016

Minor changes: 2 September 2020

Copyright: 2003-2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: HES1[title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. Stains & molecular markers - HES1. website. Accessed January 20th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • HES1 (Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1) is one of the seven members of the Hes gene family (HES1-7)
  • Hes genes encode nuclear proteins that suppress transcription; this protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix-family of transcription factors and is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription
  • It has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box (Wikipedia)
  • HES1 influences the maintenance of certain stem cells and progenitor cells, plays a large role in both the nervous and digestive systems, and works partially through the Notch signaling pathway
  • In addition to its roles in stem cells, aberrant Notch signaling has been reported in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, glioblastoma and breast cancer (J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2015;148:111)
  • It may act as a negative regulator of myogenesis by inhibiting the functions of MYOD1 and ASH
  • HES1 is expressed in developing neuroectodermal and endodermal endocrine tissues; HES1 deficient embryos show severe defects in neuronal development, as well as pancreatic hypoplasia
  • HES1 is involved in neurogenesis (Cell Mol Life Sci 2016 May 27 [Epub ahead of print])
  • HES1 is a homeostatic suppressor of inflammatory responses that exerts its suppressive function by regulating transcription elongation (Nat Immunol 2016;17:930)
Clinical features
  • The anti-HES1 antibody is validated for use in immunohistochemistry and western blotting for the detection of HES1
  • The HES1 pathway is involved in differentiation of tumors of the appendix, including classic carcinoid tumor (CCT), goblet cell carcinoid (GCC), low grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, high grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm / mucinous carcinoma (MCA) and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA, J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 1 [Epub ahead of print])
  • HES1 is markedly upregulated in glioblastoma stem cells and contributes to chemoresistance and aggressive behavior (Mol Med Rep 2016;14:1263)
Microscopic (histologic) images

Images hosted on other servers:

Positive staining:

Small intestine

Lung carcinoma using HES1 (D6P2U) Rabbit mAb

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