Stains & molecular markers
Metalloproteinases (MMP)

Topic Completed: 1 January 2013

Minor changes: 23 December 2020

Copyright: 2002-2021,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Metalloproteinases [title]

Nat Pernick, M.D.
Page views in 2020: 308
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Cite this page: Pernick N. Metalloproteinases (MMP). website. Accessed January 20th, 2021.
Definition / general
  • Family of neutral zinc metalloenzymes secreted as latent proenzymes, activated by proteolytic cleavage of NH2 terminal domain
  • Degrade various extracellular matrix proteins and other molecules (Wikipedia)
  • Includes collagenase (degrades collagen types I, II and III), gelatinase (degrades type IV collagen) and stromeolysins
  • Imbalance between metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are associated with tumor degradation of the extracellular matrix
  • Also regulate inflammation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, various renal diseases (Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2012;302:F1351)
  • Mediate endometrial matrix remodeling prior to menstruation (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E888)
Microscopic (histologic) images

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MMP2 (A), MMP3 (B) and MMP9 (C), colon

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MMP2 (left) and MMP9 (right) in situ hybridization in colorectal tumor sections

See also
  • General:
    • Matrix metalloproteinase 1
    • Also called collagenase1, interstitial collagenase
    • Cleaves alpha chains of types I, II and III collagen, apparently facilitating tumor invasion through collagenous stroma
    • Expression increased in endothelial cells
  • Positive staining - disease

  • General
    • Also called type IV gelatinase A
    • MMP2 and its inhibitor TIMP2 are secreted independently and complex extracellularly
    • Activated by type IV urokinase plasminogen activator when MMP2 or MMP9 are bound to cell surface; degraded by same when MMPs are in soluble form
    • Impaired balance in local levels of MMPs and TIMPs causes extracellular matrix degradation during tumor invasion
    • MMP2 and MMP9 are upregulated at invasive front of endometrioid endometrial and ovarian endometrioid carcinomas, may degrade basement membrane (Hum Pathol 2011;42:57)
  • Positive staining - disease
    • Bladder carcinoma (71%)

  • General
    • Also called stromeolysin-1

  • General
    • Also called type IV gelatinase B
    • Bladder carcinoma: 71% of tumor cells are immunoreactive

  • General
    • Principal proteinase expressed by stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone, has role in bone resorption (Hum Pathol 2010;41:1320)
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