Cite this page: Pernick N. ROS1. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainsros1.html. Accessed January 16th, 2021.
Definition / general
- Repressor of Silencing 1 (ROS1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that undergoes genetic rearrangements in various human cancers (Clin Cancer Res 2013;19:4040)
- ROS1 gene rearrangements are reported in 1% to 2% of lung adenocarcinomas (Am J Surg Pathol 2013;37:554, Oncologist 2013;18:865), are associated with higher response rates to therapies including crizotinib (Ann Oncol 2013;24:2364, Clin Cancer Res 2012;18:4570)
- May acquire resistance to crizotinib from mutation in CD74-ROS1 (N Engl J Med 2013;368:2395)
- CD74-ROS1 fusion is involved in carcinogenesis of non small cell lung cancer subset (Oncol Rep 2013;30:1675); also angiosarcoma, cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, gastric adenocarcinoma (Cancer 2013;119:1627),, glioblastoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, ovarian cancer
Uses by pathologists
- ROS1 immunostains are 100% sensitive and 92% specific for ROS1 rearrangements by FISH, making it an effective screening tool for lung adenocarcinoma (Am J Surg Pathol 2013;37:1441)