Stains & CD markers
Thrombomodulin (CD141)

Last author update: 1 June 2005
Last staff update: 5 September 2023

Copyright: 2003-2024,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Thrombomodulin

Nat Pernick, M.D.
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Cite this page: Pernick N. Thrombomodulin. website. Accessed February 23rd, 2024.
Definition / general
  • Also called CD141
  • 75kD transmembrane glycoprotein and cofactor for the thrombin-mediated activation of protein C
  • Marker of mesotheliomas, endothelial cells and coagulation factor
  • Important fibrinolytic inhibitor, as it decreases the activation of plasminogen to plasmin
  • Critical for activation of protein C and initiation of the protein C anticoagulant pathway
  • Plasma CD141 levels are associated with endothelial damage
  • Membranous staining pattern, often focal (cytoplasmic staining may be artifactual)
Uses by pathologists
  • Mesothelioma vs. lung adenocarcinoma: 64% sensitive, 95% specific for mesotheliomas, but must exclude vasculature; often membranous staining of periphery with isolated papilla; negative staining in sarcomatoid mesotheliomas; considered to have a "secondary" role as other markers are better (Hum Pathol 2002;33:953)
  • Urothelial carcinomas (positive) vs. renal cell, prostate, endometrial or colonic carcinomas (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:1380)
  • Squamous cell carcinomas (positive) (Am J Clin Pathol 1998;110:385, Am J Surg Pathol 2003;27:150)
Positive staining - normal
  • Endothelial cells, megakaryocytes, keratinocytes, mesothelial cells, monocytes, neutrophils, platelets, smooth muscle cells, syncytiotrophoblasts, synovial lining cells, urothelium
Positive staining - tumors
  • Mesothelioma (epithelioid), squamous cell carcinomas, trophoblastic tumors, urothelial carcinomas, vascular tumors (including angiosarcoma), synovial sarcoma (diffusely positive in 10%, Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:610)
Negative staining
  • Adenocarcinoma of colon, endometrium, kidney, lung (usually), prostate; sarcomatoid mesothelioma
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