Testis & paratestis

Sex cord stromal tumors

Juvenile granulosa cell tumor

Last author update: 1 July 2013
Last staff update: 15 September 2022 (update in progress)

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PubMed Search: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor testis

Related topics: Adult granulosa cell tumor

Swapnil U. Rane, M.D.
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Cite this page: Rane S. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/testisgranulosajuvenile.html. Accessed September 22nd, 2023.
Definition / general
  • Tumor with cells resembling the granulosa cells of ovary
  • Most frequent congenital testicular tumor
  • 6% of all prepubertal testicular tumors
  • Most tumors present in the perinatal period, occurrence after first year is rare
Clinical features
  • Scrotal or abdominal asymptomatic mass
  • More common in left testis (Tumori 2002;88:72)
  • 30% involve abdominal testis; often associated with undescended contralateral testis
  • Associated with ambiguous genitalia in 20%, most frequently mixed gonadal dysgenesis and hypospadias - these cases have abnormal karyotype: 45 / 46XY mosaicism, trisomy 12 or structural anomalies of Y chromosome
  • Not associated with gynecomastia or other endocrine disorders
  • Occasionally paraneoplastic hypercalcemia (Klin Padiatr 2013;225:170)
Radiology images

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Prognostic factors
  • Do not metastasize or recur, unlike ovarian or adult counterpart
Case reports
  • Orchiectomy
  • Enucleation if the tumor is small in view of good prognosis since there have been no reports of metastases or recurrence (Am J Surg Pathol 1985;9:87)
Gross description
  • Multicystic tumors with intervening solid areas
  • Partly encapsulated
  • Slightly smaller tumors as compared to the adult type (0.5 cm to 5 cm)
Gross images

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Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of testis

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Solid areas intermixed with follicle-like structures filled with mucoid material
  • Macrofollicular pattern is common, with multilayered tumor cells surrounded by spindle cell stroma
  • Cells are pale and can have abundant luteinized cytoplasm
  • Nuclei are round, hyperchromatic and lack grooves, unlike adult type; nucleoli are prominent
  • Mitoses are common and sometimes can be numerous, unlike the adult type
  • Cellular atypia is typically less than that ovarian granulosa cell tumor
  • Call-Exner bodies are uncommon
Immunohistochemistry & special stains
Electron microscopy description
Molecular / cytogenetics description
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