Thyroid & parathyroid

Thyroiditis

Acute / infectious thyroiditis



Last author update: 1 March 2009
Last staff update: 15 August 2023

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PubMed Search: infectious thyroiditis

Shahid Islam, M.D., Ph.D.
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Cite this page: Shahid I. Acute / infectious thyroiditis. PathologyOutlines.com website. https://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/thyroidinfectious.html. Accessed February 23rd, 2024.
Definition / general
  • Also called acute thyroiditis
  • Via blood or direct seeding from upper respiratory infections, causes sudden onset of pain and glandular enlargement
  • Risk factors: malnourished infant, debilitated elderly, immunosuppression, trauma
  • Often Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus; gram negative bacteria associated with trauma; also Pneumocystis jiroveci in HIV+ patients with low CD4 counts (Mycoses 2007;50:443)
Clinical features
Diagnosis
  • Usually based on serologic tests
Case reports
Treatment
  • Drainage, antibiotics, fistulectomy
Gross description
  • Normal or slightly enlarged thyroid gland
  • May have suppurative areas
Gross images

Images hosted on other servers:

Aspergillus septic foci

Microscopic (histologic) description
  • Neutrophils, possibly microabscesses and tissue necrosis
  • Fungi are associated with necrosis, acute inflammation and granulomas
Cytology images

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Aspergillus

Nocardia

Stains
  • Gram stain or GMS / PAS may help identify bacteria or fungi; use ISH or IHC for viruses
Differential diagnosis
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