Home   Chapter Home   Jobs   Conferences   Fellowships   Books




Cytology - normal findings

Reviewer: Rugvedita Parakh, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 13 February 2013, last major update April 2011
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Voided urine

● Paucicellular
● Urothelial cells, squamous cells, inflammatory cells and possibly red blood cells
● The umbrella cells have one nucleus, abundant delicate cytoplasm, low N/C ratio, smooth nuclear contours with fine chromatin pattern and a small chromocenter
● The basal and intermediate layers are smaller and have a columnar or cuboidal appearance; the nuclei are round with smooth nuclear contours with a fine chromatin pattern
● Nucleoli are either absent or single and minute
● Reactive conditions (e.g. urolithiasis, post instrumentation) demonstrate clusters of basal and intermediate urothelial cells

Umbrella cells

Urothelial cells

Urothelial cells

Superficial cells (arrows) retain their shape; much larger (with larger nuclei) than intermediate and basal cells

Instrumentation related urine

● More cellular
● Presence of clusters of urothelial cells forming cell balls and pseudopapillary clusters
● The urothelial cells have a low N/C ratio, round nuclei, fine chromatin pattern and smooth nuclear contours
Instrumentation effect: crowded cluster formations, hyperchromasia and distinct nucleoli; may lead to a false positive diagnosis

Ileal conduit urine

● Cellular
● Many degenerated single cells (oval with pyknotic nuclei) and few glandular cells (vacuolated cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nuclei but preserved N/C ratio of normal cells)
● Dirty background
● Non-specific eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions
● A potential pitfall due to hyperchromasia

Degenerated cells and debris

End of Bladder > Cytology > Cytology - normal findings

This information is intended for physicians and related personnel, who understand that medical information is often imperfect, and must be interpreted in the context of a patient's clinical data using reasonable medical judgment. This website should not be used as a substitute for the advice of a licensed physician.

All information on this website is protected by copyright of PathologyOutlines.com, Inc. Information from third parties may also be protected by copyright. Please contact us at copyrightPathOut@gmail.com with any questions (click here for other contact information).