CD Markers
CD31

Author: Lauren N. Stuart, M.D., M.B.A. (see Authors page)

Revised: 13 September 2018, last major update May 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2018, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD31 [title]
Cite this page: Stuart, L.N. CD31. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cdmarkerscd31.html. Accessed September 25th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • Cell adhesion molecule required for leukocyte transendothelial migration under most inflammatory conditions
  • Most sensitive and specific endothelial marker in paraffin sections
Terminology
  • Also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1, OMIM 173445), PECA1, GPIIA, endoCAM, CD31 / EndoCAM (Entrez Gene: platelet / endothelial cell adhesion molecule)
Pathophysiology
  • Member of immunoglobulin superfamily
  • Ligands are CD38 and vitronectin receptor (αvβ3 integrin, CD51 / CD61) (Cancer 2003;97:1914, J Cell Biol 1995;130:451)
  • Cell adhesion molecule that is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils and some types of T cells
  • Major constituent of endothelial intercellular junction
  • Plays a key role in leukocyte trafficking across endothelium / transendothelial migration (Blood 2003;101:2816) and integrin activation
  • Also important for angiogenesis and removal of aged neutrophils from body
  • May mediate signal-transduction pathway regulating capacitation in spermatozoa (J Cell Sci 2005;118:4865)
  • May act as a minor histocompatibility antigen in HLA identical stem cell transplantation (Bone Marrow Transplant 2005;36:151)
Clinical features
  • CD31+ T cells (angiogenic T cells) have vasculoprotective and neovasculogenic qualities; undergo numerical and functional impairments with advancing age (J Appl Physiol 2010;109:1756)
  • CD31+ Annexin V+ circulating microparticles are risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Eur Heart J 2011;32:2034)
Interpretation
  • Membranous (not cytoplasmic) immunostain; endothelium is a positive internal control
  • Potential pitfall: don't confuse CD31+ macrophages (granular, membranous expression) with a vascular tumor (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:1167)
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Images hosted on PathOut server:
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Retiform hemangioendothelioma

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Kidney, glomus tumor

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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma



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Normal structure:
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Glomeruli (fig A)

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Alveoli (fig A)

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Spleen (fig A)

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Liver (fig A)

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Lymph nodes (fig A)

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Skin (fig A)

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Brown fat: normal and hibernoma



Benign vascular tumors / processes:
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Breast - pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia

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Lymphangioma (fig 3)

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Skin - diffuse dermal angiomatosis

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Skin - epithelioid hemangioma

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Spleen, sclerosing angiomatoid



Malignant vascular tumors other than angiosarcoma:
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CNS hemangiopericytoma is CD31- (right)

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Kaposi sarcoma



Angiosarcoma:
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Heart

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Liver (fig 4)

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Lung (fig 4)

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Paratesticular

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Skin (fig 3A)

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Small intestine (fig 6)

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Epithelioid angiosarcoma (fig 4)



Lymphovascular invasion:
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Breast

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Colorectal carcinoma

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Oral cavity SCC

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Uterus, endometrial carcinoma
stage I

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Uterine leiomyosarcoma



Other tumors:
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Langerhans cells

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Pancreatic endocrine neoplasm

Positive staining - normal
Positive staining - disease
Negative staining