CD Markers
CD31

Reviewer: Lauren N. Stuart, M.D., M.B.A. (see Reviewers page)

Revised: 12 October 2015, last major update May 2013

Copyright: (c) 2002-2015, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: CD31 [title]
Cite this page: CD31. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/cdmarkerscd31.html. Accessed December 11th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • Cell adhesion molecule required for leukocyte transendothelial migration under most inflammatory conditions
  • Most sensitive and specific endothelial marker in paraffin sections
Terminology
  • Also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1, OMIM 173445), PECA1, GPIIA, endoCAM, CD31/EndoCAM (Entrez Gene: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule)
Pathophysiology
  • Member of immunoglobulin superfamily
  • Ligands are CD38 and vitronectin receptor (αvβ3 integrin, CD51/CD61) (Cancer 2003;97:1914, J Cell Biol 1995;130:451)
  • Cell adhesion molecule that is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells
  • Major constituent of endothelial intercellular junction
  • Plays a key role in leukocyte trafficking across endothelium/transendothelial migration (Blood 2003;101:2816) and integrin activation
  • Also important for angiogenesis and removal of aged neutrophils from body
  • May mediate signal-transduction pathway regulating capacitation in spermatozoa (J Cell Sci 2005;118:4865)
  • May act as a minor histocompatibility antigen in HLA identical stem cell transplantation (Bone Marrow Transplant 2005;36:151)
Clinical Features
  • CD31+ T cells (angiogenic T-cells) have vasculoprotective and neovasculogenic qualities; undergo numerical and functional impairments with advancing age (J Appl Physiol 2010;109:1756)
  • CD31+ Annexin V+ circulating microparticles are risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Eur Heart J 2011;32:2034)
Interpretation
  • Membranous (not cytoplasmic) immunostain; endothelium is a positive internal control
  • Potential pitfall: don't confuse CD31+ macrophages (granular, membranous expression) with a vascular tumor (Am J Surg Pathol 2001;25:1167)
Uses by Pathologists
Micro Images

Images hosted on PathOut server:

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Retiform hemangioendothelioma

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Kidney, glomus tumor

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Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma



Normal structure:

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Glomeruli-A

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Alveoli-A

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Spleen-A

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Liver-2A

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Lymph nodes-A

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Skin-A

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Brown fat: normal and hibernoma




Benign vascular tumors / processes:

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Breast-pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia

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Lymphangioma-3

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Skin-diffuse dermal angiomatosis

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Skin-epithelioid hemangioma

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Skin, hobnail hemangioma

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Spleen, sclerosing angiomatoid




Malignant vascular tumors other than angiosarcoma:

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CNS hemangiopericytoma is CD31- (right)

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Kaposi sarcoma




Angiosarcoma:

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Heart

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Liver-4

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Lung-4

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Paratesticular

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Skin-3A

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Small intestine-6

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Epithelioid angiosarcoma-4




Lymphovascular invasion:

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Breast

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Colorectal carcinoma

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Oral cavity SCC

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Uterus, endometrial carcinoma stage I

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Uterine leiomyosarcoma




Other tumors:

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Langerhans cells

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Pancreatic endocrine neoplasm

Positive Staining - Normal
Positive Staining - Disease
Negative Staining