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CD Markers

CD38


Reviewers: Nat Pernick, M.D., (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 24 January 2011, last major update January 2011
Copyright: (c) 2002-2011, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

General
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● Multifunctional enzyme whose ligand is CD31

Terminology
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● Also known as ADP-ribosyl cyclase 1

Physiology
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● Synthesizes cyclic ADP-ribose, a second messenger for glucose induced insulin secretion
● Appears to regulate cellular levels of NAD in multiple tissues and cells (Curr Pharm Des 2009;15:57)
● Regulates intracellular calcium (Physiol Rev 2008;88:841)
● Positive and negative regulator of cell activation and proliferation, depending on the cellular environment
● Involved in adhesion between human lymphocytes and endothelial cells
● Considered an activation marker
● May cause physiologic death of T cell precursors in human thymus (Int Immunol 2003;15:1105)

Clinical features
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● Increased CD8+ CD38+ T cell expression in HIV+ patients is poor prognostic factor (Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2009;76:375); these cells may be more prone to apoptosis, hindering their usual anti-viral role (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004;101:2464)
● Median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD38 expression on memory (CD45RO) CD8 T cells correlates with HIV RNA viral load (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2006;41:416)
● Autoimmune reaction against CD38 is associated with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes (J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2005;18:1417)

Uses
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● Identify plasma cells and plasmablastic differentiation
● Diagnosis of myeloma
● Prognosis for CLL patients (presence on 30% or more B-CLL cells by flow cytometry is associated with poor prognosis (Leukemia 2005;19:750); may be due to direct signaling role in these cells (Blood 2003;102:2146)

Flow cytometry images
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Myeloma

Positive staining - normal
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● Plasma cells (strong), committed hematopoietic progenitor cells, NK cells, B and T cells, monocytes, basophils, erythroid and myeloid precursors
● Neurons (brain - Brain Res 1995;697:235 and perivascular autonomic nerve terminals - Neuroscience 2006;139:1467), pancreatic islets, small intestinal lacteals (Virchows Arch 2002;441:605), thymocytes

Positive staining - disease
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Hematopoietic neoplasms:
● Pre-T ALL (Am J Surg Pathol 1992;16:1075), preB-ALL
● AML-t(6;9) subtype (100%, Am J Clin Path 2004;122:348); also AML-M0
● CLL/SLL (classic-47% Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26:624), 83% of transformed CLL (Am J Clin Path 2001;115:385) but only 9% of atypical CLL (Am J Clin Path 2001;116:655)
● Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (some), follicular lymphoma (Am J Pathol 2003;162:105), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (48%, Am J Clin Path 2005;124:414), myeloma, plasmablastic lymphoma (Am J Surg Pathol 2004;28:736), plasma cell neoplasms, primary effusion lymphoma (Am J Clin Path 1996;105:221), transient myeloproliferative disorder in Down’s syndrome (Am J Clin Path 2001;116:204)

Other:
● Acute infectious mononucleosis (Am J Clin Path 2003;120:49), Kikuchi’s lymphadenitis (plasmacytoid monocytes, (Am J Clin Path 1989;92:42)
● Neuroblastoma, prostate adenocarcinoma (less intense than normal prostate, Am J Pathol 2004;165:1543)

Negative staining
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● Mast cells, primitive pleuripotent stem cells (or dim), splenic marginal zone lymphoma (Am J Clin Path 1996;105:277)

Additional references
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MIM 107270

End of CD Markers > CD38


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