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Thymoma and related entities


Reviewer: Hanni Gulwani, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 27 February 2013, last major update December 2012
Copyright: (c) 2003-2013, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Staging (Masaoka)

I: Totally encapsulated grossly and microscopically (includes microscopic invasion into but not through the capsule)
IIA: Microscopic invasion through capsule but totally excised
IIB: Transcapsular infiltration into thymus, mediastinal soft tissue or pleura
III: Invades pericardium, great vessels, lungs
IVA: Seeds pericardial or pleural surfaces multifocally
IV: Distant metastases

Substaging (Haniuda)

II-p0: No adhesion to pleura
II-p1: Fibrous adhesions between tumor and pleura without true invasion of pleura
II-p2: Actual pleural invasion

Additional references

Am J Clin Pathol 2012;137:451, J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2006;47:89

End of Mediastinum > Thymoma and related entities > Staging

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