Thymoma and related entities
Thymoma staging

Author: Hanni Gulwani, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 18 June 2018, last major update December 2012

Copyright: (c) 2003-2018,, Inc.

PubMed Search: Thymoma staging[TI]

Cite this page: Gulwani, H. Thymoma staging. website. Accessed July 21st, 2018.
Staging (Masaoka)
  • I: Totally encapsulated grossly and microscopically (includes microscopic invasion into but not through the capsule)
  • IIA: Microscopic invasion through capsule but totally excised
  • IIB: Transcapsular infiltration into thymus, mediastinal soft tissue or pleura
  • III: Invades pericardium, great vessels, lungs
  • IVA: Seeds pericardial or pleural surfaces multifocally
  • IV: Distant metastases
Substaging (Haniuda)
  • II - p0: No adhesion to pleura
  • II - p1: Fibrous adhesions between tumor and pleura without true invasion of pleura
  • II - p2: Actual pleural invasion