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Stains

Lysozyme


Reviewer: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Reviewers page)
Revised: 29 June 2012, last major update June 2012
Copyright: (c) 2002-2012, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

Definition
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● Also called muramidase
● Histiocytic enzyme that cuts muramic acid linkages in walls of bacterial cells (Wikipedia)

Uses by pathologists
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● Common marker for histiocytes / monocytes, including monocytic component of leukemias (M4, M5)

Micro images
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Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4)


Orbit: myeloid sarcoma


Soft tissue: hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion


Thyroid gland: histiocytes stain strongly in palpation thyroiditis


Vagina: myeloid sarcoma

Positive staining - normal
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● Nonspecific stain for histiocytes (granulomas), monocytes, neutrophils
● May also stain some epithelial cells (pleomorphic adenoma)
● Goblet cells and related lesions (goblet cell carcinoid)
● Breast lactating lobules

Positive staining - disease
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● Acinic cell carcinoma (breast, salivary gland, Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:1137)
● Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4), acute monocytic leukemia (M5)
● Adenocarcinoma (various sites)
● Ampulla: Paneth cell carcinoma
● CNS: chordoma
● Eye: oncocytoma of conjunctiva
● Histiocytic lesions: histiocytoma, histiocytic sarcoma, Rosai Dorfman disease
● Langerhans cell histiocytosis
● Mastocytosis
● Myeloid sarcoma
● Renal collecting duct / Bellini duct carcinoma
● Salivary gland intercalated duct lesions (Am J Surg Pathol 2009;33:1322)
● Skin: granuloma annulare, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, synovial metaplasia, xanthogranuloma
● Spleen: angiosarcoma and hemangioma (often, Mod Pathol 2000;13:978), littoral cell angioma

Negative staining
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● Breast: histiocytoid variant of lobular carcinoma
● Dendritic cells
● Inflammatory pseudotumor
● Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma
● Skin: necrobiosis lipoidica

End of Stains > Lysozyme


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