Stains
PTEN

Author: Angela Chan, MSc., Emeka Enwere, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 28 July 2016, last major update July 2016

Copyright: (c) 2002-2016, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: PTEN [title]

Cite this page: PTEN. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainspten.html. Accessed December 10th, 2016.
Definition / General
  • See also topic in Molecular Pathology chapter
  • Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome TEN (at 10q23)
  • PTEN gene encodes a 403 amino acid cytosolic lipid phosphatase that negatively regulates AKT activity by dephosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3)
  • There is a secreted form of PTEN referred to as PTEN-Long or PTEN-L; PTEN-L includes an extra 173 amino acids at the N terminal of PTEN; PTEN-L secreted from one cell can exhibit phosphatase activity in neighboring cells (Science 2013;341:399)
  • PTENĪ± is an isoform of PTEN that also contains a 173 amino acid N terminal extension; it is localized to the mitochondria (Cell Metab 2014;19:836)
  • Tumor suppressor gene that is commonly lost in human cancer
  • Has important role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis
  • Heavily regulated by post-translational modifications, including:
    • Oxidation or nitrosylation (C71, C124, C83)
    • Ubiquitination (K13 and K289)
    • SUMOlyation (K254, K266)
    • Acetylation (K125, K128, K163, K402)
Terminology
  • Also called Mutated in Multiple Advanced Cancers 1 (MMAC1)
Diagrams / Tables

Images hosted on other servers:

Fig 1



Images hosted on Nature.com server:

PTEN structure

Clinical Features
Uses by Pathologists
  • Loss of nuclear PTEN expression in adenomatous thyroid nodules is sensitive and specific for Cowden syndrome (Am J Surg Pathol 2011;35:1505)
  • Loss of cytoplasmic PTEN may distinguish intraductal prostatic carcinoma from high grade PIN (Mod Pathol 2013;26:587)
Micro Images

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Colon, carcinoma & adenoma

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Kidney

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Uterus, endometrial carcinoma

Positive Staining - Normal
  • Found in almost all body tissue
Positive Staining - Disease
  • Various carcinomas
Negative Staining
  • Frequent loss of expression in carcinoma