Stains
SOX10

Author: Nat Pernick, M.D. (see Authors page)

Revised: 10 August 2018, last major update February 2014

Copyright: (c) 2014-2018, PathologyOutlines.com, Inc.

PubMed Search: SOX10[title]

Cite this page: Pernick, N. SOX10. PathologyOutlines.com website. http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/stainssox10.html. Accessed November 15th, 2018.
Definition / general
  • SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) protein
  • Transcription factor known to be crucial in the specification of the neural crest and maintenance of Schwann cells and melanocytes
  • Expressed in nuclei of melanocytes, breast myoepithelial cells
Clinical features
  • Usually positive nuclear staining in breast basal-like / unclassified triple negative / metaplastic carcinoma (Hum Pathol 2013;44:959)
    • Usually negative / rarely positive staining in breast luminal A/B or HER2+ carcinoma (5% positive), ER-/PR- DCIS (4% positive), phyllodes tumor, fibroadenoma
  • Specific (93%), but not very sensitive (67%) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor over synovial sarcoma (Mod Pathol 2014;27:55)
    • Must interpret with caution in intraneural tumors
  • In major salivary glands, expressed in nuclei of acini and both luminal and abluminal cells of intercalated ducts, but not in other sites (Mod Pathol 2013;26:1041)
    • SOX10+ carcinomas include acinic cell, adenoid cystic (Br J Cancer 2013;109:444), epithelial-myoepithelial, myoepithelial; also pleomorphic adenomas, including the pleomorphic adenoma component of carcinoma
  • Mutations cause Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (auditory-pigmentary abnormalities and Hirschsprung disease, Gene 2014;538:36)
    • Mutations within SOX10 enhancers may contribute to isolated Hirschsprung disease (Hum Mutat 2014;35:303)
  • Mutations cause Kallman syndrome (anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) with deafness (Am J Hum Genet 2013;92:707)
Uses by pathologists
Microscopic (histologic) images

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Melanoma
(fig b, f)

Negative staining